L.A. Studies Midterm

  1. Modernization theory
    more economic development means more developed politics.
  2. Secularization
    Excludes religion/ but not atheist.
  3. Dependency Theory
    L.A. have failed to solve problems b/c they were born dependent.
  4. Conquest started and lasted through
    • Started: Late 15th
    • Ended: Mid 16th
  5. Colonization lasted from...
    16th-18th centuries
  6. Transformation period to independent countries
    1800's and 1900's
  7. Aztecs location
    valley of Mexico - since 1320
  8. Mayans location
    NOrthern central Americas - since 500BC
  9. Incas location
    Peru; Ecuador down through N. Argentina 1300ish
  10. Francisco Pizarro
    Conquistador of Incas
  11. Cortes
    Conquistador of Mexico
  12. Black Ledgend
    Stories of abuses in S. America set new ways to get land.
  13. Viceroyalties
    First in 1535 mexico city, 2nd in Peru 1544
  14. Plantations Economy
    Sugar: Most imporatned producer was Brazil. Very intensive Agriculture product.
  15. Sugar Economy
    • Brazil
    • Requires: foreign Investment, Export, markets (europe) lots of Labor, slaves from africa
  16. British, French, and Dutch implement slave trade.
    • Became more powerful end of 1500's
    • England becomes big name in 1700's
    • Spain looses most of their power in L.A.
  17. Haiti colonized by:
  18. Dominican Republic colonized by
  19. Plantation industry peaked during the...
  20. Mining - Mita System
    To get workers for the mines. Forced (very little pay) labor 3-4 months at a time
  21. Haciendas
    Large houses, wealthy, lots of land. Low density city
  22. Spain Loses Control
    • Defeat of Armada the Invincible
    • Colonies in the caribean by french and dutch
    • British gain control of asientos
    • Spain was cracked and under pressure
    • Growth and consolidation of creole population
  23. Creole
    Spanish born in Americas
  24. Americas 1800's
    • Creole: Didn't want spain over them, felt more American, wanted free trade.
    • Militance: Spain allowed local militias
    • England: Very interested in Independence of Americas.
  25. Haiti creation
    1620's French starts exploring island and displaced the Spaniards. Treaty separates island.
  26. Haiti - Other facts
    Richest colony for French, Sugar Estates. High black population. Good beginning after independence, but second half 19th century french desendants have to flee or massacred. Land divided into parcels, coffee. Production of sugar feel.
  27. Haiti - leader
    Pierre Dominique Toussaint Ouverture
  28. Haiti - independence
    First black nation 1804, distinctive african identity; music cloths religion language prid
  29. Haiti religion and police force
    • Voodoo
    • Tontons Macoutes, very repressive to any resistance to the regime.
  30. Haiti US occupation
    1914-1934 dominated political and economic life. Resentment from locals. 1940's black power became stronger and stopped the US influence
  31. Haiti, history of abusive dictators.
    Duvalier dynasty (30yrs between father and son) Papa Doc (Francois D.) and Baby Doc.
  32. 1956: Francois Duvalier
    Remained in power for 14 years. Died in 1971 Succeeded by Son Baby Doc. National council ousts Duvalier and promises of new beginning. Baby Doc leaves in 1986 but unrest continued
  33. Roman Catholic Father Jean Bertrand Aristide: President 1990, 1991 ousted by coup detat. Restored to power in 1994 helped by the United Nations and US
  34. Aristide 2000
    Elected again, charges of fraud in 2004 he was ousted again
  35. 1822-1844 Hatians did what
    Invaded Santo Domino. Persecuted whites and privileges mulattoes and black. Haiti imposed the same measures as they had in Haiti itself: Abolishing slavery, nationalization, ect.
  36. Dominican Rep. dominated by Haiti until
    1844 when the Dominicans ousted them.
  37. 1861 The Dominicans preferred to be
    Colonies of Spain rather than bein dominated by Haiti. Returned to being a Spanish colony for about 5 years. Then tried to become part of US. (failed)
  38. Dominican Rep. Export
    Sugar Plantation Labor coming from Haiti, Racial tensions, interests of the USD in the sugar Plantations.
  39. Dominican Rep. US Occupation
    1916-1924 Creation of mulatto middle class, tried to erase its black origin
  40. General Trujillo
    1930-1961 middle class mulattos educated in US comes to power. 30yr dictatorship until he was assassinated.
  41. Massacre of Haitians
    1937 - Under Trujillo's watch, case of merengue. How they have changed this dance and music style.
  42. Post Trujillo era
    Some intellectuals being to revise this ideology of obsession with whiteness. but it is still prevalent in the majority of society.
  43. Dominican Rep. Now
    Economy tourism/sugar processing/mining (gold, bauxite, nickel) textitles. Member of CAFTA
  44. Exam Question: What is the difference between Haiti and the Dominican Republic w/ respect to their racial attitudes?
    Talk about Haiti being French, Dominican being Spanish, and the tensions resulting from massacre, Poor haitians comming for work, early Haitian occupation of dominican
  45. Noirisme
    French associated w/ haiti. Black haitian pride first nation to become independent led by blacks. Only one led by black to be indepentent 1810 ... 1914 invaded by US
  46. Hispanidad
    Hispanic, dominican republic tried to acert their spanish legacy. Haitians invaded D.R. tried to become a colony of PSain to et haitians away.  1844 independence from Haiti.
  47. Ferdinand and Isabella
    Legacy of ridding spain of muslims, and funding conquistadors to expand their empire.
  48. The indies
    Lands of South and South east Asia
  49. Treaty of Tordesillas
    1494 Divided newly discovered lands outside europe between portugal and spain
  50. Encomiendas
    Legal system by Spanish during colonization. Granted a person a number of natives for which they were responsible for. Ment for good, but person would abuse a native
  51. Patronato Real
    system in Spain to control appointments of Church officials and the management of revenues.
  52. Fray Bartolome de las casas
    16th century Spanish historian. Writings of the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous people
  53. Moctezuma
    Ruler of Tenochtitlan. Killed uring the initial stages of the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. Expanded his territory to the largest its been.
  54. Tenochtitlan
    Largest city in the Americas, in Mexico city ruled by Moctezuma until Cortes conquered it.
  55. Great Temple of the Aztecs
    Templo Mayor, located in capital city of Tenochtitlan. Main Temple. Destroyed in 1521 by spanish
  56. Francisco Pizarro
    Spanish Conquistador who conquered the Inca Empire
  57. Royal Council of Indies
    Administration of Spanish Empire for the Americas.
  58. Castas
    Spanish and Portuguese term used in 17th & 18th centuries to describe mixed race people which appeared in the post conquest period
  59. Tupac Amaru Revolts
    Uprising of Native and mestizo peasants against the Bourbon Reforms
  60. Bourbon Reforms
    1713-1806 set of economic and political legislation by spanish intended to stimulate manufacturing in order to modernize spain. Limited power of creoles.
  61. Creoles
    Spanish born in Americas
  62. Peninsulares
    Spanish born Spaniard or mainland spaniard residing in the new world.
  63. patria potestad
    Power granted to the father for the exclusive benefit of the family and children. Parental Authority.
  64. potosi
    Capital city in Bolivia
  65. mita
    mandatory public service in the society of the inca empire.
  66. cabildos
    Local spanish council
  67. Our Lady of Guadalupe
    is a celebrated Roman Catholic icon of the virgin Mary near mexico city
  68. Jesuits
    Order of mens priests and brothers in the catholic church
  69. Pedro I in Brazil
    Nicknamed the liberator, founder and first ruler of the empire of brazil
  70. simon bolivar
    military and political leader. Key role in L.A. independence from the Spanish Empire, one of the most influential politicians in the history of the Americas.
  71. Jose de San martin
    Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of L.A. independence from the Spanish Empire.
  72. Characterize the Liberal Era
    Change system of government to take away kings. Move to a democratic style of government. Go "outside of the box" Change the order of africans, indians, or any mixed race having power. Caudillos came to power to resist such Liberal thinking.
  73. Import export model, who benefited from this?
    Dependency on the foreign trade with other countries. Instituted the ISI to advocate replacing foreign imports w/ domestic production.
  74. Coup d'état
    sudden deposition of a government, organized by Huerta w/ support of US.
  75. Cardenas nationalized US oil companies to create Pemex. Also redistribution of a quantity of land.
    Took place after the great depression and L.A. turning toward Import Substitution Indistrialization
Card Set
L.A. Studies Midterm
Flash cards, chapters 2-8