Chem 133 Chapter10

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  1. When drawing molecules, which atom goes in the center?
    The element with the lower electronegativity.
  2. Calculation for a fractional bond order:
    Image Upload 1
  3. What is the equation for formal charge?
    qf = #valencee- -(#unsharede-+½#sharede-)
  4. What are the three criteria to help us choose the correct resonance structure?
    • Formal charges closer to zero are preferred.
    • The same nonzero formal charges on adjacent atoms are not preferred.
    • A more negative formal charge should reside on a more electronegative atom.
  5. Explain the electron-deficient exception to the octet rule.
    • Atoms containing beryllium or boron as the central atom often have less than 8 electrons. 
    • Normally the formal charges of the molecules explain why.
  6. Define a free radical.
    • Molecules with a lone unpaired electron. 
    • They are paramagnetic, and extremely reactive.
  7. Explain what an expanded valence shell is.
    A central atom in period 3 or higher can have more than 8 electrons in it because it has a 'd' orbital available.
  8. What does the valence-shell electron-pair repulstion (VSEPR) theory state?
    To minimize repulsions, each group of valence electrons around a central atom is located as far as possible from the others.
  9. Define Bond Angle.
    Angle between nuclei of bonding atoms.
  10. What is the difference between electron group arrangement and molecular shape?
    • Electron-group arrangement is defined by bonding and nonbonding electron groups
    • Molecular shape is defined by relative positions of nuclei, which are connected by the bonding groups only.
  11. Define what AXmEn is.
    • A- The central Atom
    • X- Surrounding Atom
    • E- Nonbonding Electron group (usually lone pair)
    • mn- integers
  12. What arrangement and shape is AX2?
    • Arrangement: Linear
    • Shape: Linear
    • Bond Angle: 180
  13. What arrangement and shape is AX3?
    • Arrangement: Trigonal planar
    • Shape: Trigonal Planar
    • Bond Angle: 120
  14. What Arrangement and shape is AX2E
    • Arrangement: Trigonal planar
    • Shape: Bent
    • Bond Angle: <120
  15. What arrangement and shape is AX4
    • Arrangement: Tetrahedral
    • Shape: Tetrahedral
    • Bond Angle: 109.5
  16. What shape and arrangement is AX3E
    • Arrangement: Tetrahedral
    • Shape: Trigonal pyramidal
    • Angle: <109.5
  17. What shape and arrangement is AX2E2?
    • Arrangement: Tetrahedral
    • Shape: Bent
    • Bond Angle: <109.5
  18. What arrangement and shape is AX5?
    • Arrangement: Trigonal Bipiramidal
    • Shape: Trigonal Bipiramidal
    • Bond angles: 90 between equatorial and axial 120 between equatorials
  19. What arrangement and shape is AX4E?
    • Arrangement: Trigonal Bipiramidal
    • Shape: SeeSaw
    • Bond Angles: <90 between equatorial and axial <120 between equatorials
  20. What arrangement and shape is AX3E2?
    • Arrangment: Trigonal Bipiramidal
    • Shape: T Shaped
    • Bond Angles: Far less than 90 between equatorial and axial because both nonbonding electron pairs occupy equatorial
  21. What arrangement and shape is AX2E3?
    • Arrangement: Trigonal Bipiramidal
    • Shape: Linear
    • Bond Angle: 180
  22. What arrangement and shape is AX6?
    • Arrangement: Octahedral
    • Shape: Octahedral
    • Bond Angle: 90
  23. What arrangement and shape is AX5E?
    • Arrangement: Octahedral
    • Shape: Square pyramidal
    • Bond angle: <90
  24. What arrangement and shape is AX4E2?
    • Arrangement: Octahedral
    • Shape: Square Planar
    • Bond Angle: 90
  25. What if there are multiple central atoms in one molecule?
    You name all of the shapes formed around each central atom.
  26. What is the unit of the dipole moment?
    • the debye- derived from charge and length
    • 1D = 3.34x10-30CImage Upload 2m
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Chem 133 Chapter10
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