1. Arthropoda Synapomorphies
    • composed of chitin- flexible but not elastic
    • protective- calcification in some
    • aids in controlled movement-segmentation
    • ecdysis or molting- exoskeleton doesn't expand
  2. Jointed appendages
    appendages often modified for specialized functions
  3. Compound eye
    composed of many tapering units called ommatidia set close together
  4. Tagmata
    various segments combined or fused into functional groups, in arthropods the head and thorax are examples
  5. Cephalothorax
    a body division in many arachnida in which the head is fused with some or all of the thoracic segments
  6. Abdomen
  7. Ecdysis
    process of molting so they can grow a larger exoskeleton
  8. Pedipalps
    front 2 legs that only handle food
  9. Chelicerae
    jaw like structure, some have poison or venom
  10. Operculum
    the gill cover in bony fishes
  11. Book gills
    respiratory structure of aquatic arthropods in which many thin, blood-filled gills are layered like the pages of a book
  12. Carapace
    hard dorsal shield ex: shell of lobsters
  13. Telson
    long spinelike tailpiece on horseshoe crabs (which arent crustaceans fyi)
  14. Ovigers
    in males arachnids to carry the egg masses
  15. Maternal care
    eggs and young are guarded by the mother
  16. Capitulum
    a little anterior projection where the mouthparts of ticks and mites are
  17. Idiosoma
    cephalothorax and abdomen fused together in mites and ticks
  18. Pincers
    claw like pedipalps
  19. Stinger
    stinger ya know, it stings u
  20. Arthropod Groups
    • Trilobita- extinct
    • Chelicerata- scorpions, spiders, mites, sea-spiders, and horshoes crabs
    • Crustacea- barnicles, lobsters, and crabs
    • Uniramia- centipedes, millipedes, and insects
  21. Chelicerata Synapomorphies
    • body segmented into 2 tagmata: cephalothorax and abdomen
    • 6 pairs of appendages: 4 pairs of walking legs, 1 pair of pedipalps, and 1 pair of chelicerae
  22. Merostomata
    • Horseshoe crabs
    • books gills
    • carapace
    • telson
  23. Pycnogonida
    • sea spiders
    • marine
    • appendages
    • body
    • loss of compound eyes
  24. Biramous appendages
    • ancestral conditon
    • jointed appendage
    • endopod (inner)
    • exopod (outer)
  25. Cuticle- Ecdysis
    • Epicuticle (top layer, non living)
    • Exocuticle (middle, non living)
    • Endocuticle (bottom, non living)
    • Epidermal layer of cells (under endocuticle, living)
  26. Pre-molt phase
    • some chitin is reabsorbed
    • old cuticle thins and separates from epidermis
    • epidermis produces new epicuticle and exocuticle
  27. Post-molt phase
    • new cuticle thickens and stretches
    • epidermis produces new endocuticle
  28. Cheliped
    first pair of walking legs, is usually enlarged with a strong claw for defense
  29. Uropod
    used to swim backwards if threatened, its the little tail at the very end of shrimp
  30. Diplosegments
    on each segment, there are 2 pairs of legs, this is on millipedes
  31. Crustacea Synapomorphies
    • compound eye on top of stalk
    • 2 pair of antennae
  32. Myriapoda
    • loss of compound eye
    • diplopoda- millipedes (herbivores)
    • chilopoda- centipedes (predators, dorso-ventrally flattened)
  33. Uniramous appendages
    characteristic of insects and other members of the arthropod, it consists of an unbranched series of segments
  34. Tracheal Respiration
    air is distributed directly to muscles in insects
  35. Spiracles
    respiratory openings along the sides of each abdominal segment in insects
  36. Malpighian Tubules
    • a tubular excretory organ, numbers of which open into the gut in insects and some other arthropods
    • excretory pouches lining the digestive system
  37. Labium
    a fused mouthpart that forms the floor of the mouth of an insect
  38. Maxilla
    the jaw or jawbone, specifically the upper jaw in most vertebrates
  39. Mandible
    the jaw or a jawbone, esp. the lower jawbone in mammals and fishes
  40. Thorax
    in between the head and abdomen on hexapods
  41. Thorax Segmentation
    • Prothorax--> 1st pair of legs-->no wings
    • Mesothorax--> 2nd pair of legs--> fore-wings
    • Metathorax--> 3rd pair of legs--> hind-wings
  42. Direct wing muscles
    muscle attached directly to wing to fly
  43. Indirect wing muscles
    changes the shape of thorax to move wings up and down
  44. Direct development
    they look the same as the mature and get bigger
  45. Incomplete metamorphosis
    • gradual metamorphosis
    • they're nymphs as they're growing
    • become an adult when they're sexually mature
  46. Complete Metamorphosis
    • 3 stages: feeding, pupil case, reproduction
    • ex: butterflies
  47. Elytra
    hard, protective coverings that go over wings of ladybugs, etc.
  48. Halteres
    hindwings were modified for balancing, seen in mosquito
  49. Hexapoda- Odonata
    Dragonfly and Damselfly
  50. Hexapoda- Orthoptera
    Grasshoppers, Crickets, and Katydids
  51. Hexapoda- Coleoptera
  52. Hexapoda- Hymenoptera
    Ants, Bees, and Wasps
  53. Hexapoda- Diptera
  54. Heaxapoda- Lepidoptera
    Butterflies and moths
Card Set
Bio 101 lectures 11-13 vocab and key ideas