Psychology Ch. 5 Learning

  1. A dog is shown food and it begins to salivate. The food is the _____ and the salivating is the _____
    unconditioned stimulus (US), unconditioned response
  2. A bell is introduced to a dog before it eats. It is the ____
    neutral stimulus
  3. A dog begins to salivate when a bell is rung after repeated pairings of the bell and food. The bell is the _____ and the salivation is the _____
    conditioned stimulus, conditioned response
  4. classical conditioning
    conditioning which results in a neutral stimulus eliciting the same response as an unconditioned stimulus.
  5. what is spontaneous recovery?
    After a response to a certain stimulus is extinguished, it may return again spontaneously at a later time when the animal is again exposed to the conditioned stimulus
  6. What is reconditioning?
    The proces of relearning a conditioned response after extinction. It usually occurs much more rapidly than the first time around.
  7. what is stimulus generalization?
    the tendency of stimuli similar to the CS to elicit a CR
  8. what is stimulus discrimination?
    the ability to differntiate among related stimuli. For example, you may be afraid of big dogs, but you know for a fact that golden retrievers, although they are big, are friendly.
  9. what is operant conditioning?
    the probability of a response is changed by a change in its consequences.
  10. What is the law of effect?
    a response that is followed by satisfying consequences becomes more probable (reinforcement) and a response that is following by dissatisfying consequences becomes less probable.
  11. what does "reinforcer" mean?
    reinforcer refers to a stimulus or event that increases the likelihood that the behavior it follows will be repeated.
  12. What is continuous reinforcement?
    receiving reinforcement (a reward) every time one behaves a certain way
  13. what is intermittent reinforcement?
    not receiving reinforcement every time one behaves a certain way, but only sometimes.
  14. What are the four simple intermittent reinforcement schedules?
    • 1. fixed ratio
    • - ex. every 100 envelopes stuffed

    • 2. variable ratio
    • - ex. slot machines

    • 3. fixed-interval
    • ex. mid-term

    • 4. Variable interval
    • ex. pop quizzes
  15. which reinforcement schedule is best?
    variable ratio
  16. successive approximations
    rewarding actions that are closer and closer to a goal action
  17. what is experimental neurosis
    distress due to not being able to predict when a reward is coming
  18. what is superstitious behavior?
    when one perceives a coincidental stimulus to play a role in receiving a reward
  19. what is a discriminative stimulus
    a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced

    ex. in skinners experiment, the lever is the discriminative stimulus
  20. what is stimulus generalization?
    if you give someone a cake --> that person says it was good --> then you give a cake to someone else because of the response you got from the other person
  21. response generalization
    you give someone a cake --> person says it was great --> you give that person some coffee next time. you are trying a different response/behavior
  22. escape conditioning
    negative reinforcement from an event.

    ex. dog is on a shock pad and is shocked --> jumps to other side. jumping to the other side is being conditioned
  23. avoidance conditioning
    negative reinforcement from anticipation

    • ex. 
    • a dog is on a shock pad and is shown a light that indicates that it will be shocked--> so jumps to other side --> jumping to other side is being conditioned
  24. What are the four processes of observation learning (social learning)
    attention, retention in memory, reproduction of observed behavior, reinforcement
Card Set
Psychology Ch. 5 Learning
Pavlov, classical conditioning, learning, operant conditioning, skinner