Cellular Respiration

  1. What is cellular respiration?
    a process that requires O2 and uses energy from glucose (macromolecules) to produce ATP and water
  2. what is the chemical equation for cellular respiration?
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 ===> 6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP
  3. Mitochondria
    • organelle where cellular respiration takes place
    • Image Upload 1
  4. Redox reactions
    transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another, there are two types of redox reactions: oxadation, reduction
  5. oxidation reaction
    the LOSS of electrons or gaining of oxygen
  6. Reduction reaction
    the GAIN of electrons or gaining of oxygen
  7. What are the four main reactions of cellular respiration?
    • 1. glycolysis (splitting of sugar)
    • 2. Grooming phase
    • 3. Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)
    • 4. Electron transfer chain (ETC) and oxidative phosphorylation , also called chemiosmosis
  8. Where does glycolysis take place?
    in the cytosol, just outside the mitochondria
  9. Where does the grooming phase take place?
    migration from the cytosol to the matrix
  10. Where does the Krebs cycle take place?
    the mitochondrial matrix
  11. where does ETC and chemiosmosis take place
    inner mitochondrial membrane
  12. What are the two phases (10 steps) of glycolysis?
    • A. Energy investment phase-preparatory phase (first 5 steps)
    • B. Energy yielding phase-energy payoff phase (second 5 steps)
  13. Summarize the energy investment phase of glycolysis
    • -2 ATP used (invested)
    • -leaving 2 ADP + P left
    • -glucose (6C) split in 2
    • -Glyceradehyde phosphate (2-3C) also known as G3P or GAP is the product
  14. Summarize the energy yielding phase of glycolysis
    • from 3 G3P:
    • -4 ATP produced
    • -2 NADH produced
    • -2 pyruvate produced (2-3C)
  15. What is the total yield of the glycolysis phase of cellular respiration?
    • >2-3C-Pyruvate
    • >2-ATP (substrate level phosphorylation)
    • >2-NADH
  16. Substrate-level phosphorylation
    ATP is formed when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from substrate to ADP
  17. Summarize the grooming phase of cellular respiration
    2 pyruvate (3C) molecules are transported through the mitochondria membrane to the matrix and are converted to 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) molecules
  18. What are the end products of the grooming phase of cellular respiration?
    • 2-NADH
    • 2-CO2
    • 2-Acetyl CoA (2C)
  19. Summarize the Krebs Cycle (citric acid cycle) of cellular respiration
    • Acetyl CoA (2C) bonds with oxalacetic acid (4C-0AA) to make citrate (6C)
    • it takes two turns of the Krebs cycle to oxidize 1 glucose molecule
  20. What is the total net yield of the Krebs cycle or cellular respiration?
    • In 2 turns:
    • 2-ATP (substrate level phosphorylation)
    • 6-NADH
    • 2-FADH2
    • 4-CO2
  21. Image Upload 2
  22. Explain the electron transfer chain and oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)
    • -uses ETC (cytochrome proteins) and ATP synthase (enzyme) to make ATP
    • -ETC pumps H+ (protons) across inner-membrane space therefore lowering pH in inner-membrane space (creats concentration gradient)
    • -H+ then moves via diffusion (proton motive force) through ATP synthase to make ATP
    • -All NADH converts to 3 ATP
    • -FADH2 converts to ATP (enters ETC at a lower level then NADH)
  23. what is the total ATP yield for cellular respiration?
    • -2 ATP-glycolysis (substrate level phosphorylation)
    • -4-6 ATP-converted from 2 NADH-glycolysis
    • -6 ATP-converted from 2 NADH-grooming phase
    • -2 ATP- Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation)
    • -18 ATP- converted from 6 NADH-Krebs cycle
    • -4 ATO-converted from 2FADH2-Krebs cycle
    • 36-38 ATP TOTAL
  24. What is the final electron acceptor?
Card Set
Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration flash cards for bio