The term ________, originally a derogatory term named after the Goths, is used to describe the history, culture, and art of Western Europe in the 12th to 14th centuries.
True or false:
In the early 14th century, people began to manifest a growing interest in the natural world. Accordingly, artists such as Giotto and Duccio, for example, began to abandon some of the conventions of medieval art and increasingly based their artworks on their worldly observations, resulting in a greater naturalism in art.
C. 14th century Italian
Simone Martini was:
B. 14th century Italian
In the Hall of Peace of Sienna's city hall, __________ painted an illusionistic panorama of a bustling city in his Good Government fresco Peaceful City, which served as an allegory of good government in the Sienese republic.
The most devastating natural disaster in Europe during the late 1300s was:
The Black Death
In reorganizing the elements in the Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints (Maesta), __________ recognized the function of work by limiting his experimentation with depicting the narrative action and producing illusionistic effects. He then modeled the forms and adjusted their placement within the pictorial space.
What did Giotto incorporate in his work at the Arena Chapel?
Giotto's revolution in painting:
Restored the naturalistic approach of classical antiquity and based painted images on observed naturalism.
A pupil of Duccio, __________ was instrumental in the creation of the International Style, as seen in his painting the Annunciation, which expresses elegant shapes, radiant color, flowing line, intricate patterns, and weightless figures in golden, spaceless settings.
15th Century art in __________ included consolidating political power and emerging capitalism. Patrons included royal courts, clergymen and the middle class.
Patrons of 15th century art included:
Royal courts, clergymen, and the middle class.
Jan van Eyck was:
Early Northern Renaissance
Commissioned for private use, __________'s Annunciation is set in a typical flemish merchant's home.
The left panel of Robert Campin's Merode Altarpiece contains the portraits of the:
__________'s painting Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride is loaded with iconography, otherwise known as concealed or disguised symbolism.
Jan van Eyck
__________'s Deposition was commissioned by the Archer's Guild of Louvain.
Rogier van der Weyden
The calendar pictures of the __________ Brothers' Les Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry represent the 12 months of the year in terms of associated tasks.
German 15th century art is characterized by:
proliferation of provincial styles
Due to __________'s accuracy in his painting, the Miraculous Draught of Fish, 1444, the landscape has been identified as a view of the shores of lake Geneva.
__________ was the most skilled and subtle 15th century northern master of metal engraving as exemplified by his work titled Saint Anthony Tormented by Demons.
The __________ was characterized by a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman art and design and included an emphasis on human beings, their environment, science, and philosophy.
Some of the main social beliefs of the __________ are: The increased inclusion of secular subjects into art, including art with religious function
Renaissance art is characterized by:
The patronage of powerful families, pictorial illusion, increasing esteem accorded to artists, and the influence of humanism.
__________ was one of the pioneers in the development of a system to create the illusion of three dimensions on a one dimensional surface, or linear perspective.
15th century Italian Renaissance
How did Donatello shift the interest in the depiction of the nude?
Donatello reinvented or rediscovered the classical nude, used relaxed contrapposto and proportions of Prazitelean classicism.
True or False:
The major significance of Donatello's bronze statue of David is that it is the first freestanding nude sculpture since ancient times.
Masaccio's Holy Trinity embodies Renaissance:
realism based on observation, application of mathematics to pictorial organization, and interest in classical mythology.
___________'s Madonna and Child with Angels represents the Virgin and Christ Child in a distinctly worldly manner, carrying the humanization of the holy family further than ever before.
Fra Filippo Lippi
Using the model Simonetta Vespucci for his paintings Birth of Venus and also Primavera, __________ created the works for Lorenzo de Medici's country villa.
Employing Tuscan, Compositem and Corinthian orintian orders of capitals for the Palazzo Rucellai, Leon Battista Alberti was influenced by the:
Dead Christ by __________ is "both a harrowing study of a strongly foreshortened cadaver and an intensely poignant depiction of a biblical tragedy".
No sngular style charicterizes the period of the __________, but the major artists of the period were da Vinci, Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael.
Dissatisfaction with the leadership and politics of the Roman Catholic Church led to the Protestant Reformation. In response, the Catholic church initiated the:
__________ depicted monumental figures in a scene of tranquil grandeur in his cartoon The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist.
Leonardo da Vinci
Michelangelo's David is thought to be:
A portrait of the artist as a young man
__________'s Philosophy (school of Athens) was painted for the papal apartment of Pope Julius II, which shows a congregation of philosophers and scientists.
Commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, __________'s the Tempietto is the courtyard where St. Peter was thought to be buried.
__________ artists during the High Renaissance developed a poetic, lyrical, and sensual art, while artists in Florence and Rome gravitated toward grand, heroic, and esoteric themes.
Paladio's __________ has four identical facades, each one resembling a Roman Temple with a dome-covered rotunda modeled on the Pantheon.
__________'s painting of Venus of Urbino was commissioned by the Duke of Urbino as a tribute to the mythical Venus figure, yet is nothing more than a female nude for his personal enjoyment.
Mannerist art is characterized by:
Imbalanced compositions, elongated figures, and complex and sometimes indecipherable meanings.
__________'s painting of Madonna with the Long Neck displays the stylish elegance that was the principal aim of Mannerism.
__________ is regarded as the first female artist to have a major artistic career and traveled to Spain to paint the court of King Phillip II.
__________ was the leading female artist of her time.
True or False:
The dissolution of the Burgundian Netherlands in 1477 led to a shift in the European geopolitical landscape in the early 16th century.
Befitting its setting in a monastic hospital, __________'s Isenheim Altarpiece includes painted panels depicting suffering and disease but also healing, hope and salvation.
True or False:
Catholics and Protestants differed on the role of imagery in religion.
__________ was a German theologian who challenged papal authority due to widespread dissatisfaction with the church.
Albrecht Durer was
German High Renaissance
In Durer's engraving, the Fall of Man, his interest in classical ideas transmitted through Italian Renaissance artists are studied with the __________ of human proportions.
Bosch's work, __________ is a warning to viewers of the fate awaiting the sinful, decadent, and immoral.
Garden of Earthly Delights
In the double portrait French ambassadors, __________ depicted two humanists with a collection of objects reflective of their worldliness and learning.
Pieter Bruegel was:
Flemish High Renaissance
Pieter Bruegel's painting __________ depicts in a bird's eye view a typical Netherlandish village that illustrates over 100 proverbs.
Although the miracle was supposed to have occured 200 years before the commission, __________'s painting The Burial of Count Orgaz contains a self portrait of the artist as well as a portrait of his son.
In Italy,painting, sculpture, and architecture transformed from Mannerism to an early __________ mode.
__________ is the element that is probably the unifying theme of the formal changes made by the Baroque period.
True or False:
Restrained spirituality is often present in works of Baroque art.
Gianlorenzo Bernini's David is thought to be a:
self portrait of the artist
Baroque architecture is distinguished from Renaissance architecture by its:
sculptural treatment of surfaces and use of projection and recession, but not the use of classical architectural vocabulary.
__________ rejected the traditional notion that a building's facade must be a flat frontispiece.
In ____________'s painting, the Calling of Saint Mathew, he utilizes the style of stark contrast of light and dark, dynamic composition, and tenebroso.
Narratives involving heroic women were a favorite theme of female artist Artemisia __________.
Spanish Baroque artist Diego __________ is considered the "painter's painter".
The subject of Diego Velazquez's painting Las Meninas represents:
the art of painting, a glimpse into Spanish court life, and the Infanta Margarita with her two maids in waiting, her favorite dwarfs, and a large dog.