What allowed the development of an agricultural society?
- Development of cereals (wheat, rye, corn etc)
- Domestication of herbivorous animals (cattle etc)
What is an arbodisease?
ARthropod BOrn DISEASE
What does EIL stand for and what is it?
- EIL stands for Economic Injury Level
- The lowest number of insects that will cause an economic loss.
- The point at which the loss due to damage is greater than the cost of control.
What are the three levels of pests?
- Subeconomic pests
- occasional pests
- key, perennial, or severe pests
- Amount of damage done by "pest" is not sufficiently costly to manage (costs more to manage than the damage it does)
- Most butterflies and caterpillars fall under this category.
What are occasional pests?
- Pests that usually do not do enough damage to justify management.
- If conditions are favorable, their populations might grow to be above the EIL.
- Ex. Grasshoppers and crickets
What are severe pests (aka key or perennial pests)?
- Pests that cause regular and serious damage.
- Sometimes they are managed before population levels breach the EIL.
- Ex. The coddling moth is a key pest in Washington.
Why do insects become pests?
- -Agricultural monocultures.
- -r and K selection
Describe r-selected organisms.
- -High reproductive capacity, little care for young
- -Often short-lived
- -Rebound quickly after change
- -Many insects
- -Many pests
Describe K-selected organisms.
- -Low reproductive capacity, great care of young
- -Often long-lived
- -Have difficulty dealing with change
- -Humans, elephants, mammals, few insects
What were some early chemicals used as pesticides?
- 1,000 BC - "pest averting sulfur"
- 200 BC - Bitumen - mineral pitch, asphalt
- 40-90 AD - Arsenic
- 1690 - Botanicals including nicotine
When was DDT first formulated and when was it's use as an insecticide discovered?
- Formulated in 1873 by Othmar Zeidler.
- In 1939 Paul Muller was looking for a moth proofing agent and discovered its insecticidal properties.
Name a couple downsides to DDT.
- Bioaccumulation in fat cells.
- Biomagnification in food chain.
When was DDT banned and what lead to it's banning?
In 1962 Rachel Carson wrote the book Silent Spring. DDT was banned shortly there after.
What agency was created as a result of DDT being banned?
The Environmental Protection Agency.
What are the 3 types of pesticides?
- -Metabolic poison
- -Physical poison
- -Nerve poison
Name 4 disadvantages of pesticides.
- -Development of resistance in the pest.
- -Pest resurgence and pest replacement.
- -Effects on non-target organisms.
- -Risks to the applicator
What is an alternative form of pest control that is not a pesticide?
Chemical modifiers of development and behavior.
What are chemical modifiers of development and behavior?
- -Based on knowledge of pest physiology
- -Disrupt "normal" development
- -Practical beginnings in 1960's
- -Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs)
- -Juvenile hormone mimics
- -Molting hormone mimics
Name the three types of chemicals that modify behavioral patterns.
What is the Sterile Insect Technique?
- -Developed in the 1930's
- -Sterile individuals released into the environment in high numbers to mate with fertile individuals.
- -Geographically isolated pests
- -Very costly
- -The screwworm fly was eliminated from the U.S. using this technique.
What is myiasis?
A disease caused by parasitic dipterous fly larvae feeding on the host's living tissue.
What is microbial control?
- -The use of microbes (e.g, bacteria, viruses, fungi) to manage insects.
- -Little mammalian toxicity
What is a GMO?
- Genetically Modified Organism.
- -Incorporate genetic material from one organism into another.
- -Transgenic plants
- -Public acceptance has been a problem.
Name some cultural and physical techniques of managing pests.
- -Manipulation of pest's environment
- -Crop Rotation
- -Physical removal or containment
- -Fly swatter
- -Hopper dozer
It is said that termites are social insects. What 3 roles do the members of their population have?
- -Workers (the majority)
What do termites feed on?
How do termites acquire the symbionts that live inside their guts?
The nymphs eat regurgitated food from the adults that contains the symbionts.
What are subterranean termites?
Small termites that require contact with soil (moisture). Usually white or cream in color. Common in eastern washington. They follow the grain of the wood when they tunnel.
What are dampwood termites?
Larger termites that do NOT require soil contact. Dark in color. Common in western washington.
Do carpenter ants eat wood?
No. They just nest in it.
If you see "sawdust" piles near wood it is often a sign of?
What is a corbicula?
A pollen basket located on the hind legs of a honey bee.
What is propolis?
"bee glue". A resin collected from plants etc that bees use for glue in their hives.
Honey bees have two stomachs- a normal stomach and a second special stomach. What does the special stomach do?
It is the honey stomach and it is an expandable structure that is used for storing honey from the hive that the bee can use for flight energy out in the field. It also stores water and nectar from the field to bring back to the hive.
A bee stinger is a highly modified....
What are the three castes of honey bees and what is the purpose of each?
- Drones: Come from unfertilized eggs. They are the male bees and exist only for reproduction. Once they mate with a queen they die.
- Queens: Can lay up to 1500 eggs per day!
- Workers: Come from fertilized eggs. Smallest bees in the colony. Considered to be the "jacks of all trades". They make honey, clean the hive, feed larvae and build wax comb. They also forage for nectar, pollen, etc. outside.
What two types of bee dances are there and what does each of them mean?
- -Round dance: Says flowers are less than 100 yards away.
- -Tail-waggling dance: Says flowers are further than 100 yards away. It displays both location and distance of flowers.
Who invented the moveable frame bee hive?
Rev. Langstroth in 1851.
What are "africanized bees" and when did they first appear in the U.S.?
- Killer bees.
- Their ancestors are from Southern Africa.
- First discovered in the U.S. in 1990.
What is a carrion?
A dead body.
What are some uses of insects in forensics?
- -Wasp and bee stings as punishment
- -Neglected young
- -single occupant vehicle accidents
- -Insect remains to detail probable path
- -Drugs in insects
Who refuted spontaneous generation?
- Francesco Redi
- -Black box experiments
Name some medicolegal applications for forensic entomology.
- -Cause of death
- -Movement of corpse
- -Detect toxins or drugs
- -Postmortem Interval
What does PMI stand for and what is it?
Postmortem interval. Approximates the time since death by observing the age of the insect colony.
What can faunal evidence show?
- Movement of corpse (changes in species composition)
- Antemortum conditions (lice, mites, wounds)
- Evidence can be durable
6 parts of corpse decomposition and faunal phases?
- 2)Initial decay (0-3 days after death)
- 3)Putrefaction or "bloated" state (4-10 days after death)
- 4)Black putrefaction or decay stage (10-20 days after death)
- 5)Butyric fermentation or post decay (20-50 days after death)
- 6)Dry decay (50+ days after death)