1st Outline

  1. Psychology:
    • Scientific study of the human mind
    • Begins at the time of death or anticipation of death and ends with the acceptance of death
  2. Psychiatry:
    Study and treatment of mental disease
  3. Sociology:
    study of social groups and thier functions
  4. Sociology of Funeral Service:
    • Study of group functions while dealing with death and dying
    • the basics of looking at the effects of death on the family of the deceased and family's response to that death
    • begins with the arrangement conference and ends with final disposition (final disposal of body)
  5. To be scientific in observing the influences of social structures, interrelationships and interactions on human thinking, feeling and behavior while in the confines of funeral service
    Thinking Sociologically
  6. Psychology vs. Sociology
    • In psychology, the study focuses on the individual behavior patterns while in sociology the focus is on group behavior patterns.
    • The response of death is reflected in the family's attitudes, reactions and emotions
  7. To be___________________, ________________________ funeral service practitioner, one must understand the cultural requirements of each family he or she encounters.
    successful, consiterate
  8. What does tangible mean?
    • Something you can touch
    • Examples of tangible request: flowers, religious items, casket, programs (something you can touch)
  9. what are examples of intangible request?
    • something you can't touch
    • music, location, poems etc.
  10. Every family:
    • unique
    • has individual wants
    • has individual needs
    • has own established opionion of what would be an appropriate fair well for there loved one
  11. You must:
    • meet there wants and needs
    • be responsive (notice) there tangiable and intangiable request
    • you must notice and be alert to details
  12. families base their needs and wants on __________________ ____________________.
    • cultural, prefrence
    • ex. their way of life
  13. Cultural Preference gives families:
    Mores ____________________ generally tied to religious beliefs
    • must be-haviors
    • ex. #1 Catholic rosary
    • ex. #2 Disallowing the use of instruments in a Church of Christ service
  14. Folkways:
    • informal practices or "should" ways
    • Ex. #1 dressing up to attend church services
    • Ex. #2 Attending the graveside ceremony after the funeral
  15. Customs:
    • Social behaviors considered to be the norm that are usually based on traditions.
    • Ex. #1 Cuacasian families burying their dead 3 days after the death
    • Ex. #2 African American families bury their dead on Saturdays
    • Ex. #3 Traditionally Hispanic families will watch the casket being lowered into the ground and even watch the soil being replaced in the grave before they leave.
  16. Mores, Folways and Customs are those examples still relevant today?
    Some but all culturals al lwatch the body lowered
  17. Laws
    a must behavior not necessarily a basic or important pattern of a people (related to death) but one which is enforced by those governing; a rule of action prescribed by an authority able to enforce its (realted to death) but one which is enforced by those governing; a will rule of action prescribed by an authority able to enforce it's will
  18. rules
    specific methods of procedure
  19. Culture is defined as a
    system of abstract patterns of and for both living and dying which are learned either directly or indirectly
  20. direct learning
    • this comes from parents and/or formal education
    • These are general things learned in childhood as well as customs instilled in you by those closest to you.
  21. indirect learning
    this comes from social influences & social observation such as how to act in a group setting
  22. culture can be divided into subcultures....
    Subcultures, Acculturation
  23. subcultures are a
    divisions of culture, connected to a larger culture by common traits, while having unique traits of it's owns
  24. acculturation is the process in which
    members of one culture assimilate the traits of another; a basic blending of two or more cultures
  25. What is important when looking at a subculture?
    4 factors that influence subculture:
    • 1. Location-geographic
    • 2. religion-families in more recent years tend to have more than one religion affilation
    • 3. ethnic-self explanatory
    • 4. language-some families may have people speak more than one language and this may affect how a service is conducted
  26. Subcultures have increased more in recent years because of
  27. urbanization is defined as
    the change from rural to urban areas
  28. Cultural Universals include:
    • 1. Government: the establishment of rules and regulations for orderly living
    • 2. marriage: the establishment of family
    • 3. funeral rites: the response to the death of another member of the culutre
  29. Ethnocentrism is
    the feeling that one's culture is superior to others
  30. Funeral Rite(Rite)
    An all inclusive term to encompass all funerals and or/memorial service
  31. Funeral
    funeral rites with the body present
  32. memorial service
    funeral rites with the body not present
  33. Social Function
    an event that allows those who have something in common with eachother to deal with one another in regards to that which they share.
  34. 5 types of Funeral Services:
    • 1. Traditional Funeral Rite
    • 2. Adaptive Funeral Rite (Nontraditional Funeral Rite)
    • 3. Humanistic Funeral Rite
    • 4. Immediate Disposition
    • 5. Primitive Funeral Rite
  35. Traditional Funeral Rite:
    a well defined ritual or ceremony which is based on either religious beliefs or social customs
  36. Adaptive Funeral Rite (Nontraditional Funeral Rite):
    Altered to suit the needs of the family or trends of the time
  37. Humanistic Funeral Rite:
    Devoid of any religious connotation
  38. Primitive Funeral Rite:
    Preliterate Society/Tribal services
  39. 4 Sociological Responses to Death
    • 1. The funeral is a social function
    • 2. The funeral rite is a cultural universal
    • 3. The funeral rite expresses the relationship between the type of family you will serve and how they operate
    • 4. The funeral rite reflects both modern and contemporary tendencies
  40. Modern
    present or recent times
  41. Contemporary
    of the same time or occurring at the same time
  42. forms of disposition
    • Burial-interment or earth burial (without a recepticle or vault)
    • Entombment
    • Body donation to science
    • burial at sea
    • creamtion
  43. Enculturation/Socialization is
    • the process by which a person learns the social values of a society.
    • (this process begins at birth. From childhood you learn what your family's expectations are of you through direct learning. This contributes to your cultural traits.
  44. custom is a
    social behaviro considered to be normal and are generally based on tradition of people involved. They outline the individual procedures a family will follow when making funeral arrangements.
  45. Though the family determines which customs to follow when making arrangements, society does have an impact. Society indicates what behaviors they consider to be moral obligations of the family. These are called
    mores (must-behaviors)
  46. Mores are the
    basic and important patterns, ideas and acts of people. Society expects/requires us to be respectful and to care for the dead. Mores indicated what we are and allowed to do in regard to the dead.
  47. taboos
    actions that are considered forbidden by society when dealing with the dead
  48. laws
    actions that are considered forbidden by govermental agencies when dealing with the dead
  49. taboos and laws are considered
  50. actions performed during a rite which may or may not have symbolic meaning to the participants or observers of the actions
    rituals and ceremonies
  51. ceremony is a
    formal, religious or public occasion celebrating a particular event
  52. ritual is the
    prescribed order of performing rites; procedure regularly followed
  53. the family unit is the
    basic focus in funeral service. your main concern of all services offered as a funeral director is how the family is impacted by the death of one of its members. Meeting the family's needs should be your goal.
  54. Patriarchal
    families where the male places the dominant role where all power is given to the next oldest male after the death of the first
  55. Matriarchal
    Families where the female plays the dominant role and where all the power is given to the next oldest female after the death of the first
  56. Egalitarian
    families where all members have a voice and where everyone in the unit plays a role in decision making; children are often a part and sometimes influence the final decision made by the family
  57. family structures define
    who controls the family and it's members
  58. family systems tell
    you who or what type of people make up the family
  59. 4 main types of family structures:
    • 1. Extended (join) Family
    • 2. Nuclear Family
    • 3. Modified Extended Nuclear Family
    • 4. Single Parent Family
  60. Extended (joint) Family
    • Father and a mother; unmarried children; married sons and their wives/children
    • married daughters become a part of their husband's family system and are no longer considered a part of their parents' household
    • may be seen in immigrant families and some of the first 2 generations of an American family
    • typically patriarchal and women subservient to the dominant male
    • generally farm based or agrarian and self sufficient
    • strong religious affiliations show in public and at home
    • conservative in their thinking, dress and act
    • have little mobility and tied to their land
  61. nuclear family
    • father and mother and their unmarried children
    • governing factor not clearly defined
    • total family income-both parents work
    • more liveral in dress, thought and action
    • prone to mobility/take vactions
    • typically smaller-death does have a great impact
  62. nuclear families (blended families)
    married with children from previous relationships and children together. this can cause a conflict with who holds the position of authority in the family
  63. modified extended nuclear family
    family created by two or more nuclear, famlies
Card Set
1st Outline
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