BIO 102 Lecture Exam II

  1. Plantae
    Kingdom that includes grasses, trees, shrubs, ferns, or mosses; exist nearly everywhere
  2. Charophyte
    Green Algae, called chara, may resemble the ancestors of land plants
  3. Stomata
    pores in the epidermis of stems and leaves; gases diffuse through open stomata
  4. Vascular tissue
    a collection of tubes that transport sugar, water, and minerals throughout the plant
  5. Xylem
    a vascular tissue conducts water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the leaves
  6. Phloem
    a vascular tissue that transports sugars produced in photosynthesis to the roots and other non-green parts of the plant
  7. lignin
    a complex polymer that strengthens cell walls; the additional support from lignin means that vascular plants can grow tall and form branches, important adaptations in the intense competition for sunlight
  8. sporophyte
    (diploid) generation develops from a zygote that forms when gametes come together at fertilization
  9. Alternation of generations
    a life cycle in plants in which a multicellular diploid stage alternates with a multicellular haploid stage
  10. Gametophyte
    (haploid) produces gametes by mitotic cell division; these sex cells fuse at fertilization, starting a new cycle
  11. Pollen
    consists of the male gametophytes of seed plants, each pollen grain produces sperm
  12. Pollination
    wind or animals deliver pollen directly to female plant parts, eliminating the need for free water in sexual reproduction
  13. Fertilization
    the union of two gametes
  14. seed
    a dormant plant embryo, packaged together with a food supply inside a tough outer coat that prevents desiccation
  15. Flower
    are reproductive structures that produce pollen and egg cells
  16. Fruit
    parts of the flower that develop after fertilization that contain seeds
  17. Bryophyte
    seedless plants that lack vascular tissue, but evidence suggests that they do not form a single clade
  18. Gymnosperm
    the first seed plants; derives from Greek words gymnos, meaning "naked," and sperma, meaning "seed"; the seeds of these plants are "naked" because they are not enclosed in fruits
  19. Cones
    are the organs that bear the reproductive structures
  20. Ovules
    large female cones bear two sporangia on the upper surface of each scale
  21. Angiosperm
    flower plants (phylum Magnoliophyta) that include apple trees, corn, roses, petunias, lilies, grasses, and many other familiar plants, including those we grow for our own food
  22. eudicot
    have two cotyledons (the first leaf structures to arise in the embryo), and their pollen grains feature three or more pores
  23. Monocot
    named for their single cotyledon; in addition, their pollen grains have just one pore
  24. Coevolution
    when a genetic change in one species selects for subsequent change in another species; example would be an alteration in the shape or color of a flower can select for new adaptations in its pollinator
  25. shoot
    aboveground part of the plant
  26. stem
    supports the leaves of the plant
  27. Leaves
    produce carbohydrates such as sucrose by photosynthesis
  28. Roots
    usually below ground, root cells depend completely on the shoots to provide energy for metabolism; however, roots anchor the plant and absorb water and minerals that move via the stem to the leaves
  29. adventitious roots
    arise from any plant part other than the roots, ex. pop roots
  30. herbaceous
    one of two categories of plants; they have a green, soft stem at maturity; examples include chili plant, grasses, daises, dandelions, and radishes
  31. Woody plants
    one of two categories of plants; stems are made of tough wood covered with bark; examples are elm and cedar trees
  32. Node
    is a point at which one or more leaves attach to the stem
  33. Internode
    are the stem areas between the nodes
  34. axillary bud
    an undeveloped shoot that forms in the angle between the stem and leaf stalk
  35. apical meristems
    small patches of actively dividing cells near the tips of roots and shoots
  36. primary growth
    lengthens the root or shoot tip by adding cells produce by the apical meristems
  37. parenchyma
    most abundant cells n the primary plant body
  38. Lateral meristems
    plants which produce cells that thicken a stem or root
  39. secondary growth
    resulting increase in girth
  40. ground tissue
    makes up the majority of the primary body f a plant; it consist of three main cell types: 1. parenchyma 2. Collenchyma 3. Sclerenchyma
  41. collenchymas
    elongated living cells with unevenly thickened primary walls that can stretch as the cells grow
  42. Sclerenchyma
    cells that provide inelastic support to parts of a plant that are no longer growing
  43. Lignin
    a tough complex molecule that adds great strength to the cell walls
  44. Fibers
    a type of sclerenchyma cells that are elongated cells that usually occur in strands
  45. Sclereids
    a type of sclerenchyma cells that occur in many shapes, although they are generally shorter than fibers; small groups of sclereids create a pear's gritty texture and also form hard layers in nutshells, apple cores, and pits of cherries and plums
  46. tracheids
    a water-conducting cell in xylem that are long, narrow cells that overlap at their tapered ends; water moves from tracheid to tracheid through pits, where the secondary cell walls are absent and the primary walls are thin
  47. vessel elements
    a water-conducting cell in xylem that are short, wide, barrel-shaped conducting cells that stack end to end, forming long, continuous tubes; their side walls have pits, but their end walls either are perforated or disintegrate completely; water moves much faster in vessels than in tracheids
  48. Sieve tubes
    main phloem conducting cells which align end to end to make a single functional unit
  49. companion cells
    specialized parenchyma cell that retains all of its organelles; companion cells not only transfer carbohydrates into and out of the sieve tube elements but also provide energy and proteins to the conducting cells
  50. dermal tissue
    covers the plant; in the primary plant body, dermal tissue consists of epidermis
  51. epidermis
    a single layer of tightly packed, flat transparent parenchyma cells that cover leaves, stems, and roots
  52. Cuticle
    a waxy layer that coats the epidermis of the aboveground parts of the plant; the cuticle conserves water and protects the plant from predators and fungi
  53. guard cell
    surround each stoma and controls its opening and closing (in pairs)
  54. vascular bundle
    is a strand of tissue containing xylem and phloem, often together with collenchyma or sclerenchyma fibers; the fibers prevent animals from tapping the rich sugar supply n the phloem
  55. petiole
    stalk-like part that supports the blade of a plant
  56. Mesophyll
    ground tissue inside a leaf which is composed mostly of parenchyma cells
  57. taproot system
    the primary root enlarges to form a thick root that persists throughout the life of the plant; lateral branches emerge from the main root; taproots grow fast and deep
  58. fibrous root system
    slender adventitious roots arise from the base of the stem and replace the short-lived primary root; grasses and other monocots usually have fibrous root systems
  59. root hair
    provide extensive surface area for absorption
  60. Endodermis
    is the innermost cell layer of the cortex; the walls of its tightly packed cells contain a ribbon of waxy, waterproof material
  61. casparian strip
    a barrier that blocks the passive diffusion of water and dissolved substances in the xylem
  62. pericycle
    the outermost layer of the root's vascular cylinder; cells in the pericycle divide to produce lateral roots
  63. Bark
    a collective term for all tissues to the outside of the vascular cambium
  64. Cork cambium
    a lateral meristem that gives rise to cork o the outside and parenchyma to the inside
  65. Heartwood
    the darker colored, nonfunctioning region of the tree trunk (oldest secondary xylem gradually becomes unable to conduct water)
  66. Sapwood
    lighter colored of a tree trunk, located nearest the vascular cambium, transports water and dissolved minerals
  67. Transpiration
    the evaporation of water from a leaf
  68. Cohesion-tension theory
    explains how xylem sap moves within a plant; hinges on the cohesion properties f water- the tendency for water molecules to form hydrogen bonds and "cling" together; as water molecules evaporate from the leaf, additional water diffuses out of leaf viens and into the mesophyll
  69. Pressure flow theory
    "phloem transport" this theory suggests that phloem sap moves under positive pressure from "sources" to "sinks"
  70. turgor pressure
    the force of water pressing against the cell wall
  71. Sporophyte
    (diploid generation) produces haploid spores by meiosis; basic plant life cycle
  72. Gametophyte
    a spore divides mitotically to produce a multicellular haploid; basic plant life cycle
  73. Spore
    reproductive cell of a plant
  74. Zygote
    the fused egg and sperm that develops into a diploid individual
  75. Gametes
    egg cells or sperm
  76. Receptacle
    a part of the floral stalk which is the attachment point for all flower parts
  77. Sepal
    are leaf-like structures that enclose and protect the inner floral parts
  78. Petal
    flower part interior to sepals
  79. Stamen
    (male flower part) which are filaments that bear pollen-producing bodies called anthers
  80. anther
    pollen producing body
  81. carpel
    (female flower part) at the center of a flower
  82. androecium
    collective name for stamens in a flower
  83. Gynoecium
    collective term for all carpels
  84. stigma
    in angiosperms, pollen-receiving tip of style
  85. style
    in angiosperms, the stalk-like upper part of the carpel
  86. ovary
    in angiosperms, base of the carpel plus their enclosed ovules
  87. Microspores
    in seed plants, spore that gives rise to male gametophyte
  88. Megaspores
    in a seed plant, spore that gives rise to female gametophyte
  89. pollen
    immature male gametophyte in seed plants
  90. calyx
    collective name for sepals of a flower
  91. Corolla
    name for petals of a flower considered a unit
  92. double fertilization
    in angiosperms, one sperm nucleus fertilizes the egg and another fertilizes the polar nuclei
  93. endosperm
    resulting from triploid nucleus, divides, which is composed of parenchyma cells that store food for the developing embryo
  94. cytokinins
    stimulate cytokinesis, or cell division, in flowering plants, most cytokinins affect roots & developing organs such as seeds, fruits
  95. Ethylene
    is a gaseous hormone that ripens fruit in many species
  96. abscisic acid
    a fifth plant hormone that counters the growth- stimulating effects of many other hormones
  97. gibberellins
    plant hormone that promotes shoot elongation
  98. auxins
    Plant hormone that promotes cell elongation in stems and fruits
  99. Phototropism
    directional growth response to unidirectional light
  100. gravitropism
    directional growth response to gravity
  101. thigmotropism
    directional growth response to touch
Card Set
BIO 102 Lecture Exam II
Plantae Exam