Animals, Health and Society

  1. Epidemiology of Antimicrobial resistance
    • Circle Between:
    • Food Animals, companion animals, humans, aquaculture, and vegetation, seed crops and fruit; with sewage, soil, wildlife, rivers and industrial and household antibacterial chemicals as connectors
  2. The original birth of One Health
    Health is embedded in our relations with the world around us
  3. Millennium Development Goals
    • 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    • 2. Achieve universal primary education
    • 3. Promote gender equality and empower women
    • 4. Reduce child mortality
    • 5. Improve maternal health
    • 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    • 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
    • 8. Global partnership for development
  4. Extreme poverty and hunger
    • Livestock and fish = livelihoods: food source, living banks
    • Increased production: more food, more affordable, more sustainable
  5. Financial capital
    • Might be cash: income from animal use
    • Might be animals: living banks; poultry as petty cash, pigs and goats as household expenses, cattle as saving account
    • Longevity and productivity
    • Domestic and wild
  6. Physcial Capital
    • Transport
    • Tools
    • Shelter
    • Energy
    • Water
    • Fertilizer
    • Goods and services (infrastructure)
  7. Achieving universal primary education
    • Schools cost money to attend: living banks help fund schooling, disposable income allows kids to go to school not work
    • School performance affected by nutritional status
  8. Promote gender equity and empower women
    • Equity does not = equality
    • Women often head households and in many countries are responsible for livestock care
  9. Reduce child mortality
    • Secure food supplies to meet nutritional needs
    • Safe food and animal interactions to reduce zoonoses
    • Another role for the living bank, pay for unexpected health cost
  10. Improved maternal health
    • Nutrition: healthier mom, healthier baby so this is related to the previous goal
    • Nursing children plus physical labour of tending to the family - large nutritional costs
  11. Combat HIV, malaria and other diseases
    • Zoonoses are a determinant f poverty
    • Non-zoonotic animal disease reduce production and access to all the other animal associated benefits
    • HIV/AIDS has reduce available farm labour
    • Combined human and animal health services.
  12. Ensure environmental sustainability
    • Animals do degrade the envrionment
    • Can also cause benefits
  13. Developing partnerships
    • Animals as determinants of health: the population health approach is based on partnerships; seeing animals as a public good rather than just private property shifts the vet. perspective to more collaboration
    • Poverty reduction and decreasing health inequities requires multi-approaches and players
  14. Health is largely determined by factors outside the health care system
    "Lack of health care is not the cause of the huge global burden of illness; water-borne diseases are not caused by lack of antibiotics but by dirty water, and by the political, social and economic forces that fail to make clean water available to all; heart disease is not caused by a lack of coronary care units but by the lives people lead, which are shaped by the environments in which they live; obesity is not caused by moral failure on the part of individuals but by the excess availability of high-fat and high-sugar foods. The main action on the determinants of health must therefore come from outside the health sector.
  15. Animals and psycho-social determinants
    • Being a functional part of your "community" is important to health
    • Connections to animals and nature are good for mental health
  16. Social capital
    Refers to both formal and informal reciprocal links among people in all sorts of family, friendship, business and community networks
  17. Animals and human health
    • Animals are food
    • Animals are sources of income
    • Animals are sources of fuel and power
    • Animals provide social capital
    • Animals provide ecological services
    • Animals promote mental health and fitness
  18. The Poles of One Health Schools
    • Zoonotic hazards are best prevented at sources:
    • 75% of emerging infectious diseases have been zoonotic
    • Endemic zoonoses are determinants of poverty and poor health globally
    • Primary prevention should target hazard reduction and exposures at their origin
    • Fostering positive environmental determinants of health
    • Animals are critical for human
    • Sustained human well-being is absolutely dependent on functioning ecosystems
  19. One Health Goals
    • Ultimate goals are to:
    • Maximixe the social benefits of animals and the environment
    • Sustainable food production, rural economy and poverty reducation, maintain trade and tourism
    • Maintain environmental services like water security and biodiversity
    • Minimize the negative impacts from human-animal-environmental interactions
    • emerging zoonotic infections
    • impacts of endemic zoonotic infections (including food safety)
    • Detect and mitigate the effects of pollution
    • Protect biodiversity and welfare while farming or extracting resources
Card Set
Animals, Health and Society
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