1. standard terminology of stance phase
    heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, toe off
  2. standard terminology of swing phase
    acceleration, midswing, deceleration
  3. Rancho los amigos terminology stance phase
    initial contact, loading response, midstance, terminal stance, pre-swing
  4. rancho los amingo terminology of swing phase
    Inital swing, midswing, terminal swing
  5. Standard- heel strike
    Heel strike is the instant that the heel touches the ground to begin stance phase
  6. standard- foot flat
    Foot flat is the point in which the entire foot makes contact with the ground and should occur directly after heel strike
  7. standard- midstance
    midstance is the point during the stance phase when the entire body weight is directly over the stance phase
  8. standard- heel off
    heel off is the point which the heel of the stance limb remains on the ground
  9. standard-toe off
    toe off is the point in which the heel of the stance limb remains on the ground
  10. standard- acceleration
    acceleration begins when toe off is complete and the reference limb swings until positioned directly under the body.
  11. standard- midswing
    midswing is the point when the swing limb is directly under the body
  12. standard- deceleration
    deceleration begins directly after midswing as the swing limb begins to extend and ends just prior to heel strike
  13. RLA- initial contact
    initial contact is the beginning of the stance phase that occurs when the foot touches the ground
  14. RLA- loading response
    loading response correcponds to the amount of time between initial contact and the beginning of the swing phase for the other leg
  15. RLA- midstance
    midstance corresponds to the point in stance phase when the other foot is off the floor intil the body is directly over the stance limb
  16. RLA- terminal stance
    terminal stance begins when the stance limb's heel rises and ends when the other stance foot reaches toe off.
  17. RLA- pre-swing
    pre-swing phase begins when the other foot touches the ground and ends when the stance foot reachs toe off
  18. RLA- initial swing
    initial swing begins with stance foot lifts from the floor and ends with maximal knee flexion during swing
  19. RLA- midswing
    midswing phase begins with maximal knee flexion during swing and ends when the tibia is perpendicular with the ground
  20. RLA- terminal swing
    terminal swing phase begins when the tibia is perpendicular to the foot and ends when the foot touches the ground
  21. Stance phase is ____% and swing phase is _____%
  22. Base of Support
    The distance measured between the left and right foot during progression of gait. The distance decreases as cadence increase. Average base of support is 2-4 inches
  23. Cadence
    The number of steps an individual will walk over a period of time. The average value for an adult if 110-120 steps per minute
  24. Degree of toe-out
    The angle formed by each foot's line of progression and a line intersecting the center of the heel and second toe. Average 7 degrees
  25. Double support phase
    The double support phase refers to the two times during the gait cycle where both feet are on the ground. The time of double supprt increase as the speed of gait decreases. Theis phase does not exist with running.
  26. Gait Cycle
    The gait cycle refers to the sequence of motions that occur from one inital contact of the heel to the next consecutive initial contact of the same heel
  27. Pelvic Rotation
    rotation of the pelvis opposite the thorax in order to maintain balance and regulate speed. 4 degrees forward and 4 degrees backward
  28. Single support phase
    The single support phase occurs when only one foot is on the ground and occurs twice during the gait cycle.
  29. Step length
    the distance measured between right heel strike and left heel strike. average is 13-16 inches.
  30. Stride
    The distance measured between right heel strike and the following right heel strike. Average 26-32 inches
  31. Antalgic
    A protective gait pattern where the involoved step length is decreased in order to aviod weight bearing on the involoved side usually secondary to pain.
  32. Ataxic
    A gait pattern charcterized by staggering and unsteadiness. Usually a wide BOS and movements are exaggerated (drunk people)
  33. Cerebellar
    A staggering gait problem seen in cerabellar disease
  34. Circumduction
    A gait pattern characterized by a circular motion to advance the leg diring swing phase; this may be used to compensate for insufficient hip or knee flexion or dorsiflexion
  35. Double step
    A gait pattern in which alternate steps are of a different length or at a different rate.
  36. Equine
    A gait pattern in which alternate steps are of a different length or at a different rate
  37. Festinating
    A gait pattern where a patient walks on toes as though pushed, It starts slowly, increase, and may continue until the patient grasps an object in order to stop. Parkinsons
  38. Hemiplegic
    A gait pattern in which pt abduct the paralyzed limb, swing it around, and bring it forward so the foot comes to the ground in the front of them.
  39. Parkinsonian
    a gait pattern marked by increased forward flexion of the trunk and knees; gait is shuffling with quick and small steps; festinating may occur
  40. Scissor
    A gait pattern in which the legs cross midline upon advancement
  41. spastic
    A gait pattern with stiff movement, toes seeming to catch and drag, legs held together, hip and knee joints slightly flexed. Commonly seen in spastic paraplegia.
  42. Steppage
    A gait pattern in which the feet and toes are lifted through hip and knee flexion to excessive heights; usually secondary to dorsiflexor weakness. The foot will slap at initial contact with the ground secondary to the decreased control
  43. Tabetic
    A high steppage ataxic gait pattern in which the feet slap the ground
  44. Trendelenburg
    A gait pattern that denotes gluteus medius weakness; excessive lateral truck flexion and weight shifting over the stance leg
  45. Vaulting
    A gait pattern where the swing leg advanced by compensating through the combination of elevation of the pelvis and plantar flexion of the stance leg
  46. Foot slap
    weak dorsifelxors, dorsiflexor paralysis
  47. toe down instead of heel strike
    Plantar flexor spasticity, plantar flexor contracture, weak dorsiflexors, dorsiflexors paralysis, leg length discrepancy, hindfoot pain
  48. Clawing of toes
    toe flexor spasticity, postive support reflex
  49. Heel lift during midstance
    Insufficient dorsiflexion range, plantar flexor spasticity
  50. No toe off
    forefoot/toe pain, weak plantar flexors, insufficient plantar flexion range of motion
  51. Exaggerated knee flexion at contact
    weak quadriceps, quadricps paralysis, hamstrings spasticity, insufficient extension ROM
  52. Hyperextension in stance
    compensation for weak quadriceps, plantar flexor contracture
  53. Exaggerated knee flexion at terminal stance
    knee flexion contracture, hip flexion contracture
  54. Insufficient flexion with swing
    knee effusion, quadriceps extension spasticiy, plantar flexor spasticity, insufficient flexion ROM
  55. Excessive flexion with swing
    Flexor withdrawal reflex, lower extremity flexor synergy
  56. insufficient hip flexion at initial contact
    weak hip flexors, hip flexor paralysis, hip extensor spasticity, insufficient hip flexion ROM
  57. insufficient hip extension at stance
    insufficient hip extension ROM, hip flexion contracture, lower extremity flexor synergy
  58. circumduction during swing
    compensation for weak hip flexors, compensation for weak dorsiflexors, compensation for weak hamstrings
  59. hip hiking during swing
    compensation for weak dorsiflexors, compensation for weak knee flexors, compensation for extensor synergy pattern
  60. exaggerated hip flexion during swing
    lower extremity flexor synergy, compensation for insufficient hip flexion or dorsiflexion
Card Set
gait, standard terminology, los amigos terminology, gait phases, abnormal gait patterns