BIO 102 Lab Midterm Practical

  1. Taxonomy
    Binomial nomenclature- scientific classification and naming of organisms (Genus & Specific epithet) species names
  2. Systematics
    Scientific study of kinds of organisms with the aim of understanding the evolutionary relationships between organisms and construction of a phylogenetic tree that relates organisms
  3. Cladistics
    Evolutionary taxonomy that arranges taxs by analysis of primitive and derived characteristics
  4. Genus
    First name n binomial nomenclature, which species belongs
  5. Specific Epithet
    Second name in binomial nomenclature specific to the organism
  6. Eponyms
    Organisms named after their founder or a namesake
  7. Dichotomous Key
    A tool to identify a species in the lab or in the field
  8. Eukaryotic
    Have a nucleus and membrane made up of multi and single cells
  9. Prokaryotic
    Lack a nucleus, made up of single cells
  10. Autotrophic
    "Self feeder" inorganic carbon source
  11. Heterotrophic
    "Other Feeder" organic carbon source
  12. What is the eight tier classification?
    • 1. Domain
    • 2. Kingdom
    • 3. Phylum
    • 4. Class
    • 5. Order
    • 6. Family
    • 7. Genus
    • 8. Specific epithet
  13. What are the three Domains?
    • Bacteria
    • Archaeabacteria
    • Eukarya
  14. List the six Kingdoms including if they are Prokaryotes/Eukaryotes and Autotrophic/Heterophic.
    • Archaebacteria   Prokaryote          Hetero
    • Eubacteria         Prokaryote     Hetero & Auto
    • Protista             Eukaryote      Hetero & Auto
    • Plantae             Eukaryote           Hetero
    • Fungi                Eukaryote            Auto
    • Animalia           Eukaryote           Hetero
  15. Pathogenic
    causing or capable of causing disease
  16. Zoonotic
    an infectious disease that is transmitted between species from animals other than humans
  17. Binary Fission
    a method of asexual reproduction that involves the splitting of a parent cell into two approximately equal parts
  18. Bacterial conjugation
    the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or bridge-like connection between two cells
  19. Endospore
    is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria
  20. Cyanobacteria
    blue-green bacteria, by producing oxygen as a gas as  by-product of photosynthesis, cyanobacteria are thought to have converted the early reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one
  21. Gram Stain
    method of differentiating bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram negative)
  22. Bacterial Shapes:
    • Coccus-Round
    • Bacillus-Rod
    • Spirillium-Spiral
  23. Kingdom Protista  Traits
    • Decomposers
    • Photosynthesis CO2 Production
    • Base of food chain
    • Mutualistic & Parasitic Relationships
    • Commercial Uses
  24. Red Algae
    Chlorophyll a & c
    Can absorb light at greater depths
    • Image Upload 1P
    • hylum Rhodophyta
  25. Green Algae
    Chlorophyll a & b
    Image Upload 2Image Upload 3Phylum Chlorophyta
  26. Image Upload 4

    Brown Algae
    Chlorphyll a & c and fucoxanthin
    Bladder Thallus
    Phylum Phaeophyta
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    Red tide
    Phylum Pyrrophyta
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    Used in commercial products, toothpaste, cleaners, filtering media
    Contains silica in cell wall
    Phylum Chrysophyta
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    Tsetse fly
    African sleeping sickness
    Animal like protists
    Phylum Euglenozoa
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    Contractile vacuole
    Phylum Sarcodina (Rhizopoda)
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    Food vacuole
    Oral groove
    Phylum Ciliphora
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    Paramecium conjugation
  33. Saprobes
    one of three types of fungi that eat dead material
  34. hyphae
    hyphae are filaments that make up most(coenocytic)multicellular fungi
  35. mycelium
    hyphae grouped together into a mass
  36. Rhizoids
    modified hyphae that anchor fungi to a substrate
  37. Heterotrophic
    organism that obtains carbon and energy from eating another organism; in fungi they release digestive enzymes onto a food source, partially dissolving the source to make the essential nutrients available
  38. Gametangia
    area in the hyphae where fungi produce gametes
  39. Dikaryotic
    containing two genetically distinct haploid nuclei; in fungi their two nuclei remain distinct for a portion of the life cycle
  40. Decomposer
    organism that consumes wastes and dead organic matter, returning inorganic nutrients to the ecosystem
  41. Pathogen
    disease-causing agent
  42. Mutualism
    type of symbiosis that improves the fitness of bothpartners
  43. 1.      Explain the role of Kingdom Fungi
    Fungi play vital role in ecosystems and are economically essential; without certain species of fungi serving as decomposers, ecosystems would collapse; decomposers break down dead organisms, leaves, feces, and organic matter and recycle their chemical components back into the environment; also, many species of pants depend upon mutualistic fungi to help their roots absorb minerals and water from the soil
  44. Kingdom Fungi - Characteristics
    • ·         Hyphae---Mycelium·        
    • Coenocytic (multicellular) dikaryotic·         Haustoria  (parasitic fungi) penetrates the tissues of a host·        
    • Rhizoids – anchor fungi to a substrate·         Septate (cross walls in their hyphae) –Nonseptate (multinucleated and contain numerous nuclei in the cytoplash·         Dikaryotic (Axso & Basidio) n & n·        
    • Lack Sexual Dimorphism (+/- mating spores)·        
    • Gametangia (sexual-asexual = classification)
  45. Bread Mold
    Sexual r asexual
    3 types of hypae
    Phyla Zygomycota
  46. Yeast, Truffles, Penicillium
    Septate hyphae
    Asci with ascocarps
    Sexual reproduction
    Conidiosphores with conidia asexual reproduction
    Phyla Ascomycota
  47. Mushrooms, puffballs, smut, shelf fungi
    dikaryotic (karyogamy prior to meiosis)
    Septate hyphae
    Basidiocarp-fruiting body
    Basidia with sterigmata holding spores
    Phyla Basidiomycota
  48. Three basic types of lichens?
    Crustose lichens-form brightly colored patches or crusts on rock or bark

    Foliose lichens-appear to have leaf-like thalli that overlap, forming a scaly, lobed body on tree bark and human made structures

    Fruticose lichens-appear shrub like or hanging moss on trees
  49. An organism that is made up of a fungu and associated green alga or cyanobacteria is________.
  50. Why are some fungi call imperfect?
    Because scientist have not been able to determine the asexual reproduction
  51. What type of relationship is mycorrhizae an example f and between which organisms does this relationship exist?
    Mutualistic Relationship such as Fungi & Plantae
  52. Define Vascular tissue, Xylem & Phloem
    • Vascular tissue- specialized conducting tissue
    • Xylem- tissue that conducts water and minerals
    • Phloem-tissue that conducts organic nutrients from one part of the plant to another (photosynthates)
  53. nonvascular plants
    lack specialized conducting tissues to transport water and nutrients throughout the plant’s body
  54. Seedless vascular plants
    include ferns, club mosses which do not produce sees, they have true roots, stems, and leaves but sperm is flagellated and require water for reproduction so are limited to moist areas
  55. seed plants
    comprise the largest group of vascular plantsand include plants such as ginkgos, cycads, conifers, and zinnias
  56. alternations of generations
    life cycle of plants; in this process, two distinct generations give rise to each other
  57. Sporophytes
    generation is diploid (2n); it produces haploidspores that undergo cell division to form a gametophyte
  58. Gametophytes
    haploid (n) generation is characterized by theproduction of male and female gametes through cell division; nonvascular plantsgametophyte generation is dominant, but seedless vascular plants and seedplants, the sporophyte generation dominates
  59. Non-vascular "Liverworks"
    Approximately 8,000 species have been identified ·        
    Flattened, liver-shaped bodies·        
    Live in moist environments·        
    Capable of asexual and sexual reproduction ·        
    80% of liverworts are considered leafy·         Two distinct types:
    o   Thallus liverworts§  Leaf-like lobed bodies§  Found along creek banks
    o   Leafy liverworts§  Resemble mosses§  Found in tropical environments
    Phylum Hepatophyta
  60. Non-vascular "Mosses"
    True Mosses·        
    Nearly 15,000 species have been identified·        
    Gametophyte stage of mosses consists of small, spirally leaf-like structures·         Blades of leaf-like structure are one cell layer thick·        
    Asexual and sexual reproduction·        
    Most live in moist environments of the temperate zone·        
    Commercial uses Sphagnum, or peat moss·        
    Used as absorbent for wounds in World War I & II
    Phylum Bryophta (Polystichum spp.)
  61. Vascular "Lycopodium"
    Approximately 1,150 species ·        
    Known as ground pines, club mosses, quillworts·        
    Considered most ancient group of seedless vascular plants·        
    Found in tropics and moist, temperate regions of earth·        
    Best known:
    o   Lycopodium (ground pines)
    §  Moistforest floors§ 
    Usually only 30 cm in length§

    Medical uses include emetic, as baby powder and warming agent
    §  Used in controlled explosionso   Selaginella
    §  Approx. 700 species
    §  Live in moist regions
    §  Scale-like leaves on branching stem
    §  Leaves have a distinct ligule, or tongue
    Phylum Lycophyta
  62. Vascular "Ferns"
    Phylum Pteridephyta
  63. Seedless vascular plants
    include ferns, club mosses which do not produce sees, they have true roots, stems, and leaves but sperm is flagellated and require water for reproduction so are limited to moist areas *reproduce through the production of spores as their ancestors did
  64. Roots
    are plant organs that absorb water and nutrients from the soil and, in addition , anchor a plant
  65. Stem
    – are vascular plant organs that support leavesand reproductive structures
  66. leaves
    are the primary photosynthetic organs of plants
  67. sporophytes
    generation is diploid (2n); it produces haploidspores that undergo cell division to form a gametophyte
  68. Gametophytes
    haploid (n) generation is characterized by theproduction of male and female gametes through cell division; nonvascular plantsgametophyte generation is dominant, but seedless vascular plants and seedplants, the sporophyte generation dominates
  69. Rhizome
    a horizontal usually underground stem that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes
  70. Frond
    the leaves of ferns
  71. one of the two major groups of seed plants; gymnosperms consist of the following four living phyla:
    Ø  Cycadophyta-the cycads and sago palms
    Ø  Ginkgophyta-only one living species, Ginkgo biloba
    Ø  Gnetophyta-three genera of unusual plants
    Ø  Coniferophyta-the largest phylum, consisting of plants including pine, spruce, sequoia, juniper, cedar, and cypress
  72. one of the two major groups of seed plants “flowering plants”; the majority of living plants on Earth are angiosperms, placed in phylum Magnoliophyta; Examples of angiosperms are cacti, oaks, grasses, tulips, sycamores, and magnolias
  73. structures of seed plants containing the female sex cells with the potential to develop into seeds at the tips of their slender branches
  74. production of spores of two different sizes and sexes by the sporophytes of land plants
  75. multicellular male gametophytes (microspores)
    pollen grains
  76. when pollen is carried from the male reproductive organs to the female reproductive organ in a number of ways, including wind, insects, and birds
  77. modified leaves that enclose the sporangium
  78. provides the embryonic plant with essentialnourishment and protection (plant embryo w/endosperm)
  79. is what the seeds of angiosperms are encased in (mature ovary)
  80. having separate sexes and produce distinct malepollen cones and female seed cones (need two people; separate male & femaleplants)
  81. unisexual reproductive organs or flowers, with the organs or flowers of both sexes borne on a single plant, as in corn and pines
  82. mega sporangia =>eggs
    Ovulate cone
  83. microsporangia=>pollen=>sperm
    Pollinate cone
  84. Ovulate cone
    Staminate cone
    Pine pollenTube cell
    Ovuliferous scale
    Life Cycle Pine –
    Phylum Coniferophyta
  85. structures of seed plants containing the femalesex cells with the potential to develop into seeds at the tips of their slenderbranches
  86. “air plants” which attach to a substrate such as another plant or the side of a building (Spanish moss)
  87. two embryonic leaves contained within a seed of dicots (flowering plants)
  88. are flowering plants with a single cotyledon
  89. are flowering plants whose seed contains twoembryonic leaves, or cotyledons
  90. involves the joining of a female gametophyte (embryo sac) with two male gametes (sperm); one sperm fertilizes the egg cell and the other sperm combines with the two polar nuclei of the large central cell of the embryo sac; the sperm and haploid egg combine to form a diploid zygote, while the other sperm and two haploid polar nuclei form a triploid nucleus(2n Zygote +Tiploid(3n) Endosperm = food for Zygote)
    double fertilization
  91. – tissue produced inside the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization; it surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition in the form of starch
  92. Image Upload 11
    Monocot and Dicot
  93. Mono and Dicot Seed Structure
    Image Upload 12
  94. Mono and Dicot Stem Root cross section
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  95. Root System
    roots and their ancillary structures comprise theroot system of a plant
  96. Shoot system
    stem and leaves and their ancillary structures comprise the shoot system of a plant
  97. Radicle
    root-like structure that emerges from the embryo and forms the first root
  98. Tap root
    tap roots form from the radicle; tap rootsanchor he plant and seek deep water supplies
  99. produced by the stem or another plant someplants part
    Fibrous root
  100. – increase the surface area of the root and, therefore, its ability to absorb water and nutrients
    root hairs
  101. group of specialized cells at the tip of theroot; major function is to protect the delicate inner root from abrasive soil
    root cap
  102. located at the tip of the twig, contains the tipof the shoot
    Terminal bud
  103. located within the terminal bud is enveloped byimmature leaves
    apical meristem
  104. mark the region of the stem where a leaf or leaves were attached by a stalk called a petiole
  105. a stalk that a leaf or leaves attach to
  106. the region between the nodes, which increases inlength as a stem grows
  107. can give rise to new branches or flowers are located between the petiole and he stem
    axillary bud
  108. blades can vary in size and shape but are typically flattened (leaf)
  109. a leaf that has a single blade, such as azalea and birch leaves
    simple leaf
  110. a leaf if it is divided into smaller leafletssuch as an ash tree and pecans
    compound leaf
  111. on a typical leaf is present n both sides of the blade; it is transparent nd does not undergo photosynthesis
  112. on a horizontal leaf, openings that are foundmostly on the underside, stoma are essential for gas exchange
  113. regulate the openings of a stoma
    guard cells
  114. held within bundle sheaths house the vasculartissue of a plant; the veins of a leaf are composed of xylem on topside of avein and phloem on the bottom side of a vein
  115. “ground tissue”  in a typical leaf is composed of parenchyma
  116. waxy cuticle above the epidermis on many leavesimportant in water relationships nd in discouraging insect predation
  117. are exclusive reproductive organs of angiosperms
  118. is a structure derived from the ovary of a plantand its accessory tissues; fruits house, protect, nourish, and aid in thedissemination of seeds
  119. is an edible part of a plant derived frompetioles, leaves, specialized leaves, roots, stems, or flowers
  120. is a ripened ovule of a plant that contains anembryo housed in a protective coat and nourished by stored food
  121. Image Upload 14
Card Set
BIO 102 Lab Midterm Practical
Bacteria, Protista, Fungi & Plantae