Posterior Parietal cortex:
receives somatosensory, proprioceptive, visual, and auditory inputs
retrieves relevant information from parietal and frontal lobes; decides what action is desired
Premotor and supplementary motor areas:
decides how actions will be performed
Primary motor cortex:
Basal Ganglia and cerebellum:
Voluntary Behavior steps:
Awareness: Idea: Program: Execution: Feedback
UMNs reside in the _____, both the cell body and axon reside here. UMNs synapse with LMNs in the _______ and the ______
- Brain stem (these are the cranial nerves, they do not need a motor component)
- Spinal cord (these are the spinal nerves, and they have to have a motor component)
1/2 of the UMNs reside in the ___________. which controls ___________ muscle movement.
- primary motor cortex
*Remember that the homunculus is located here, and the primary motor cortex sends signals out to specific parts of the body.
The premotor and supplementary motor areas are responsible for:
________ syndrome occurs when the supplementary motor area is damaged
- planning (programming) motor movements
- alien limb
The pyramidal tracts carries _____ information to ____ in the brain stem and SC. Fibers that synapse with cranial nerves are the _________ tract. Fibers that synapse with the spinal nerves are the ____________ tract.
- corticobulbar (head and neck)
- corticospinal (lateral decussates, anterior is ipsilateral)
Extrapyramidal system controls __________ motor movement. It works with the autonomic nervous system to help _______ and _________ it also helps with ____________.
- muscle tone
- facial expressions (sad, happy, irony)
There are 4 tracts, and it is also known as the indirect activating system.
The cerebellum functions in:
- control of movement
- receiving info from cortex
- sending info back to cortex via thalamus
- fine tuning motor movement (adaption and learning)
- feedback for movement (detects mismatches)
- modifies behavior via the primary motor cortex
Once a movement is totally learned, the _________ is no longer activated during that movement.
The basal ganglia (extrapyramidal system):
- organizes automatic action sequences (in order to perform as automatic unit)
- functions in inhibition and disinhibition (filtering) which is aided by substantia nigra
parts of basal ganglia:
- Caudate nucleus and putamen (collectively known as striatum)
- globus pallidus
- subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra (functionally part of BG but anatomically part of midbrain)