Linear Model of Communication
- One directional communication
- Source encodes a message, sends to receiver, receiver decodes message.
- ex. A news anchor on a show talking to people watching TV because they can’t interact back
Interactional Model of Communication
- Source encodes a message, sends to receiver, receiver decodes message, gives feedback (two-directional)
- Ex. Teacher asking a question and student answer, teacher possibly giving feedback on answer.
Transactional Model of Communication
- Messages sent and received at the same time, this is the most effective model
- Ex. On a talk show, when the host is conversing with his guest, the guest is clapping/laughing simultaneously
- Off the top of the head speaking with little to no preparation.
- Pros: Natural, Spontaneous, Genuine
- Cons: No prep time, no research, can be disorganized
- Developed talking points, background research, outlines and notes.
- Pros: Security of notes, quotes, organization, still sounds natural
- Cons: Tempted to look at notes/look down
- Written out and delivered word for word.
- Pros: Accurate language and security.
- Cons: Unnatural, easy to lose audience, easy to lose enthusiasm
Visual instead of physical
- Written word for word and delivered entirely from memory
- Pros: Similar to manuscript
- Cons: May forget information, easy to get lost
Reliability Test of Evidence
- Is the source objective and competent as possible?
- Pass: A legal document released by a government agency
- Fail: A personal blog post relating to the writer’s experiences rather than statistics or facts that are less subjective.
Recency Test of Evidence
- Is the information as recent as possible?
- Pass: A study on a current issue written in 2013.
- Fail: A study on a current issue written in 1976.
Completeness Test of Evidence
- Is the information from a variety of sources?
- Pass: If you included information from a variety of credible sources.
- Fail: If you only used one website or book.
Accuracy Test of Evidence
- Is the information verifiable and easily confirmed
- Pass: If your information is consistent across a variety of sources.
- Fail: If your information was only found in the source you used.
Composed of all those messages that people exchange beyond the words themselves
Reflexive; they’re responses to stimuli and they’re automatic reactions, like twitches or flinching at a loud noise
Reactions or behaviors that you've learned through cultural background; like how to greet someone
statement of the speech's central idea
It’s the main point, what the speech is about, and the purpose/goal of the speech. It’s intended to keep the speaker on course for developing a purposeful and well-organized speech
Introduction of a Speech
Hook, background info, central idea, benevolence (make the audience like you)
Body of a Speech
Main points, supporting evidence, examples, transitions, oral citations
Conclusion of a Speech
Two major challenges an informative speaker faces
Avoiding persuasion, and getting the audience to understand and retain the information
Dynamic Characteristic of Communication
The way we communicate is constantly changing
Continuous Characteristic of Communication
Communication never stops. Even when you are alone, your brain is always working/ remaining active so therefore it cannot stop
Irreversible Characteristic of Communication
You cannot undo a sent message
Interactive Characteristic of Communication
We react to our own ways we communicate and to others around us. And the same goes for the other people
Contextual Characteristic of Communication
When communicating, we develop/gain new skills to communicate effectively
the process of creating a message, putting an idea into message form
the process of translating the received messages
Frame of Reference
- A perceptual screen used by receivers to filter message ideas based on their background and culture
- What you base your perceptions on
- World view
- Includes culture, experiences
any internal or external interference in the communication process
- outside interference that prevents receiver from gaining message
- ex: noise from construction
- physical problem that can block effective sending or receiving
- ex: deafness or blindness
- problems regarding the meaning of words
- ex: scientific language to non-scientists
- inappropriate grammar usage
- ex:conflicting tenses
- difficult to grasp ideas when not presented in a structured order
- ex: jumping from topic to topic with no logical order
- preconceived, unyielding attitudes derived from a group or society about how members of that culture should act or in what they should or should not believe
- ex: religious disagreement about a deity
- stress, frustration, irritation hinders effective communication
- ex: angry people may not listen to the other person
% of Communication is nonverbal?
What are four aspects of a good outline?
parallelism, coordination, subordination, and division
Using the same verb tense in your headings
Headings should have the same significance
Headings should be general, subheadings more specific
Headings should be divided into two or more parts