1.The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) places all substances which were in some manner regulated under existing federal law into one of five schedules. This placement is based upon the substance's _________, ________, and ________.
medical use, abuse potential, dependency
Give an example of a drug from each of the five schedule classifications:
4.alprazolam (xanax), propoxyphen
5. robitussin AC
What are the four indicators that a drug or other substance has a potential for abuse?
(1) There is evidence that individuals are taking the drug or other substance in amounts sufficient to create a hazard to their health or to the safety of other individuals or to the community.
(2) There is significant diversion of the drug or other substance from legitimate drug channels.
(3) Individuals are taking the drug or other substance on their own initiative rather than on the basis of medical advice from a practitioner.
(4) The drug is a new drug so related in its action to a drug or other substance already listed as having a potential for abuse to make it likely that the drug will have the same potential for abuse as such drugs, thus making it reasonable to assume that there may be significant diversions from legitimate channels, significant use contrary to or without medical advice, or that it has a substantial capability of creating hazards to the health of the user or to the safety of the community. Of course, evidence of actual abuse of a substance is indicative that a drug has a potential for abuse.
Give an example of a Federal Trafficking penalty:
1st offense- not less than 5 yr not more than 40, but if death or serious injury not less than 20 yr or no more than life. fine $5 million for individual, $25 million group
2nd offense not less than 10 yr and not more than life. if death or serious injury- life imprisonment. fine of $8 million individual, $50 million for group
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) regulates five classes of drugs. They are? And give an example of a drug from each class.
1. narcotics: heroin
2. depressants: benzodiazepine
3. stimulants: cocaine
4. hallucinogens: LSD
5. anabolic steroids: testosterone
Give three examples of how narcotics are used therapeutically:
dull senses, relieve pain, sense of well being- reduce tension, anxiety, aggression
Narcotic use is associated with a variety of unwanted effects. Give three examples:
Accidental death from stimulants is partially due to effects on what body system?
regulating systems; ex cardiovascular and temperature
The euphoric effects of cocaine are almost indistinguishable from those of amphetamine except?
cocaine stay shorter; amphetamine stays longer
Chronic abuse of ________ can produce a psychosis that resembles schizophrenia and is characterized by paranoia, picking at the skin, preoccupation with one's own thoughts, and auditory and visual hallucinations.
Benzodiazepines are classified in the CSA as?
A large percentage of people entering treatment for narcotic or cocaine addiction also report abusing benzodiazepines. a.True b.False
Marijuana is the most frequently encountered illicit drug worldwide. a.True b.False
In 1974, the average THC content of illicit marijuana was less than one percent. Today most commercial grade marijuana from Mexico/Columbia and domestic outdoor cultivated marijuana has an average THC content of about ___________
4 to 6 %
Amotivational Syndrome induced by chronic cannabis use is characterized by:
Long-term use of the drug, marijuana, can also lead to a series of attitude and personality changes, known as “amotivational syndrome.” This syndrome is characterized by a diminished ability to carry out long-term plans, a sense of apathy, decreased attention to appearance and behavior, and decreased ability to concentrate for long periods of time. These changes can also include poor performance in school.
Give three examples of drugs with hallucinogenic properties:
ecstasy/MDMA, spice, LSD
MDMA is known by the street name of ? Ecstacy
beans , Adam
MDMA produces euphoria, increased energy, increased sensual arousal, and enhanced tactile sensations. However, the user will often experience:
problems with memory/ learning
Inhalants are a diverse group of substances that include volatile solvents, gases, and nitrites that are sniffed, snorted, huffed, or bagged to produce intoxicating effects similar to?
The highest incidence of use is among what age group?
youth, up to 8th grade
The chronic use of inhalants has been associated with a number of serious health problems. Give three examples:
damage to nervous system
When abusing steroids, to avoid a buildup of tolerance, users may employ a use pattern called a cycle. What is a “cycle”?
taking multiple doses of steroids over a specific period of time, stopping for a period, and starting again
The CSA defines anabolic steroids as:
Anabolic steroids are synthetically produced variants of the naturally occurring male hormone testosterone that are abused in an attempt to promote muscle growth, enhance athletic or other physical performance, and improve physical appearance.
The brain is a functional unit made up of billions of nerve cells called_________ that communicate with each other using electrical and chemical signals.
Then anatomy of a neuron is made of ________, _________, and ________.
soma, dendrites, axon
At the end of the axon is the ________, which makes a connection with another neuron.
An electrical impulse (the action potential) travels down the axon toward the terminal. The terminal makes a connection with the dendrite of a neighboring neuron, where it passes on chemical information. This is the neurological process of: a.Passing information from one nerve cell to the next a. b.Stimulating blood flow to the brain. c.Exfoliating the endocrine glands d.Reproduction of brain cells
a.Passing information from one nerve cell to the next a.
The area of connection is called the ________.
Describe the process of chemical neurotransmission:
As an electrical impulse arrives at the terminal, it triggers vesicles containing a neurotransmitter, such as dopamine ,to move toward the terminal membrane. The vesicles fuse with the terminal membrane to release their contents (in this case, dopamine). Once inside the synaptic cleft (the space between the two neurons)the dopamine can bind to specific proteins called dopamine receptors on the membrane of a neighboring neuron.
Dopamine is the main neurotransmitter involved in the reward pathway a.True b.False
Heroin binds to which nerve receptor site?
opiate receptor: parts of cerebral cortex, VTA, nucleus accumbens
Give two examples of natural rewards that have survival value
The main brain structures involved in the reward center of the brain are: a.The occipital lobe/myelin sheath b.The ventral tegmental area (VTA)/ nucleus accumbens c.The hippocampus/basal ganglia d.The cerebellum/medulla
b.The ventral tegmental area (VTA)/ nucleus accumbens
1.A main feature of tolerance is: a. b.
a. state in which organism no longer responds to a drug
b. a higher dose is required to achieve the same effect
drugs repeated over time
Dependence occurs when: a. b.
a. neurons adapt to the repeated drug exposure and only function normally in presence of the drug
b. physical/disturbance occurs when the drug is removed
Addiction and Dependence are the same thing a.True b.False
Heroin increases the release of dopamine into the synaptic cleft, while cocaine decreases the re-uptake of dopamine leading to an increase of dopamine in the synaptic cleft. a.True b.False
Although each drug has a different mechanism of action, each drug increases the activity of the reward pathway by increasing ________ transmission.
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disease characterized by compulsive, often uncontrollable, ________ and ________ in the face of __________.
The judgement area of the brain is the _________
The emotion/memory area of the brain is _________
The reward center is made up of the ________ and the _________
The decrease of neural response to natural rewards is due to the damaging effects of overexposure to what neurotransmitter?
1.Brain activity can be permanently altered through exposure to addictive drugs a.True b.False
Long lasting brain changes from the effects of amphetamine use often trigger other changes in social and emotional behavior too, including a possible increase in _________, _________, and ___________.
feeling of isolation
.When drug craving occurs, the _________ becomes active and a craving for cocaine is triggered.
Research has shown for alcoholics a cognitive link between perceived stress and the urge to use alcohol a.True b.False
The drugs most often associated with substance related violence are:
a.___________ b.___________ c.___________
The risk for suicide associated with alcohol dependence ________ with age. a.Increases b.decreases
Factors that place one individual at greater risk of becoming addicted than another individual with a similar pattern of drug use are: a.Poor coping skills b.Use at an early age c.Genetic history of addiction d.All of the above e.b and c
d. all of the above
Drug abuse puts addicts at higher risk for other health problems Give 2 examples: a. b.
a. inhalants leads to disruption of heart rhythms
b. shorting cocaine lead to ulcerations in the mucous membranes of the nose
“Research has also taught us that addiction is a complex disease, influenced by a multitude of highly entangled factors. No single factor determines whether someone will or will not become addicted to drugs.” True False
Give four factors that lead to the development of addiction: _______________, ___________, ___________, _________________
3. brain mechanism
Give at least three neurological conditions that exist in individuals with genetic factors for a higher risk to develop addiction:_________, ________, _________
1. decrease "senstivity" to alcohol/drugs
2. prolong response to alcohol/drugs
3. lower levels of dopamine receptors
tolerance- the more often the drug is used the more accustomed the brain becomes to its effects.
brain changes in response to a stimulation
Drug abuse changes both the _________ of the brain and its __________.
Give a specific example of both types of neurological change: _______, _______
change to neurons
release more dopamine
In the developmental process of the brain, adults have the capacity to rely on the prefrontal cortex in decision making. Adolescents rely on the __________ part of the brain
What are the behavioral/ treatment implications of the above in working with adolescents?
focus on decision making, social, biological factors that influence decision to use drugs
work around the amygdala
Subjects who had high levels of dopamine receptors found the experience (drug use) unpleasant, while those with lower levels of dopamine found it more pleasurable. True False
What are the implications for drug use behavior based on the above?
individual difference in a marker of dopamine function can influence an person's susceptibility to continue a drug
Possible reasons that mental illnesses and substance abuse tend to co-occur include: Give one:
self-medication- substance abuse begins as a means to alleviate symptoms of mental illness
common or correlated causes
Substance abuse treatment should address the whole person and can include medications, behavioral therapies, and ancillary support services. True False
Genetic Studies have found a single “addiction” gene predisposing persons to addiction. True False
Drug use has played a prominent role in the HIV/AIDS epidemic in which of the following ways? a.Transmission due to IV drug use b.Transmission due to impaired judgement/disinhibition leading to rsky sexual behaviors c.Accelerated/severity of disease progression d.Neurological complications e.All of the above
e. All of the above
Relapse rates for drug addiction are similar to those of other well-characterized chronic illnesses. Give 2 examples: a. b.