Exam 1: Greek Rhetoric II

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  1. Aristotle
    • Born 384 (died 322) BCE on Macedonian frontier
    • In Athens, a metic.(someone who lives in Athens, but is not a citizen)
    • Connections: Plato, Alexander
  2. Rhetoric
    Rhetoric is a teachable discipline that teaches adaptation in order to successfully persuade in specific situations.
  3. The Rhetoric
    By Aristotle (Aristotle's Rhetoric)

    • 40 years of Aristotle's lecture notes
    • Greatly detailed, not without internal contradictions
    • Three books (later divided into chapters and sections)
    • Book 1: Uses, definition, proofs, topoi, 3 kinds of discourse
    • Book 2: Specialized topoi for ethos, pathos, and audience type; common topoi, enthymemes and example
    • Book 3: Delivery, style, and arrangement
    • Dialectic uses rhetoric. Rhetoric is not logic while dialectic is a philosophical logic. They are both important for truths.
  4. Relationship of dialectic and rhetoric:
    • Rhetoric is a counterpart to dialectic:         -Communicating with an audience
    • -Dialectic is more one on one. And uses rhetoric.
    • -Rhetoric is not logic. Dialectic is a heart of logic.
  5. Rhetorical appeals
    • Ethos
    • Pathos
    • Logos
  6. Rhetorical Appeals:
    • -Sagacity, character, goodwill
    • -Must be built through the speech itself
    • -Prior reputation considered
    • -Ethical agreement with audience
  7. Rhetorical appeals:
    • -State of mind
    • -Explores/exploits the who, what, where
    • -Emotional continuums
    • -Temporal & spatial proximity, imagination
  8. Rhetorical appeals: Logos
    • -Appeal to reason
    • -Enthymeme (leading them there, but don't flat out say it) (deductive/inductive 
    • -Topoi (28 ways to construct an argument)
    • -Example
  9. Style & Delivery
    • Style: language
    • Delivery: tone, physical, the way you execute language.
    • -The proper use of voice, gesture, and motion.
  10. Types of Rhetoric
    • -Deliberative
    • -Forensic
    • -Epideictic
  11. Types of Rhetoric: Deliberative
    • -Legislative
    • -"High" rhetoric with little to no trickery
    • -End: happiness or harm
    • -Of general interest
    • -Looking to the future
  12. Types of Rhetoric: Forensic
    • -Judicial
    • -Trickery possible with accusation/defense
    • -End: action as just or unjust
    • -Concentrates on specific situation
    • -Looking to the past
  13. Types of Rhetoric: Epideictic
    • -Ceremonial
    • -Occasional
    • -End: honor or disgrace
    • -Of general interest
    • -Look at the present
  14. Syntheses & Conflicts
    • -Rhetoric in Greece was about being oral, speeches and today it's more than that.
    • -Isocrates, Plato, Aristotle= need to know what they are about
    • -Isocrates -> it's impossible to teach someone to be good, it's innate ability is most important. He's more of a writer-diverging from mainstream rhetoric of the time.
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Exam 1: Greek Rhetoric II
(Part 3)
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