core test

  1. Insecticide Act of 1910
    The first significant federal effort to regulate companies that manufacture pesticides passed by US Congress
  2. what did the Insecticide Act of 1910 require of pesticide products?
    that they conform to the statements printed on their labels
  3. FIFRA
    Federal Insecticide Fungicide Rodenticide Act

    means of regulating rapidly evolving industry enacted by congress in 1947
  4. What did FIFRA require
    that USDA to register all pesticides distributed via interstate commerce, but registration was a formality and USDA had little enforcement power
  5. EPA
    in 1970 federal government transferred administrative power for FIFRA from USDA to the new EPA
  6. Pesticides used in the US must be registered with
  7. legal document requiring applicator to follow all directions
    The pesticide label
  8. Pesticides must be classified for either general use or restricted use. what is restricted use?
    restricted use pesticides may be applied only by, or under the direct supervision of, a certified applicator
  9. each state should have a compliance law administered by a state pesticide regulatory agency that parallels ________
  10. each state pesticide regulatory agency must have an applicator cerification program meeting at least the minimum standars established by __________
  11. The legislative events of the early 70s signaled shift in federal policy focus moved away from regulation  for purposes of assuring product efficacy  to _________
    reducing risk to man and environment
  12. primary emphasis of FIFRA
    pesticide registration
  13. certified applicator is
    individual who has demonstrated the competency nessary to manage the use of pesticide products so as to minimize associated risks.
  14. When does FIFRA consider a pesticide a general use material
    when the product used in accordance with label directions is no expected to have adverse effects on man or environment.. can be bought OTC
  15. responsible for pesticide regulation and enforcement in INdiana
    OISC, office of the Indiana state chemist
  16. OISc first authorized to enforce Indiana pesticide laws under ____________
    the 1971 pesticide act
  17. the 2 Indiana laws in which pesticide registration and certification and licensing are fully addressed
    Indiana pesticide use and application law

    Indiana pesticide registration law
  18. Indiana recognizes 2 typies of pesticide applicators
    private and commercial
  19. certified private applicators are issued a permit valid for
    5 years
  20. private applicators cannot
    apply pesticides to property of others, only their own property
  21. commercial applicator is 2 step process - take core and one category exam. exception is
    wood destroying insects
  22. all commercial applicators must be liscened under one of the following classifications
    • -  for hire
    • - not for hire
    • - public applicator
  23. 3 purposes of having license
    • - link applicator to specific business
    • - confines applicator to specific business
    • - confines applicator to those applications indicated by cert categories listed
  24. applicator license is property of __________
    and expires on
    • applicators employer
    • dec 31
  25. applicator license is invalid
    • moment individual leaves employment firm which they were licened
    • must re apply if new company
  26. some commercial non certified applicators may apply rup for hire if they do so _________________
    under the supervision of a certified licensed applicator. supervisor must remain on site unless the non certified applicatior is  a registered technician
  27. a certified licensed applicator may not supervise more than ____ non certified employees unless granted a 60 day emergencyexcemption by OISC
  28. 2 exceptions to supervision requirments
    • - all aerial applicators must be certified and licensed
    • - all individuals employed as wood destroying pest inspectors must be certified and licensed
  29. pesticide applicators must maintain written records of all applications involving RUPs for at least ________
    2 years from date of application
  30. category 7b certified and licensed applicators must also keep termiticide application records on file for at least
    5 years
  31. FIFRA concerned primarily with
    pesticide registration
  32. 4 major groups of pest organsims
    • - insect
    • - vertebrate
    • - weeds
    • - plant diseases
  33. insect metamorphosis
    series of changes insect goes through for egg to adult
  34. the form assumed by a juvenile insect after each molt is called
    an instar
  35. shedding of hard outer covering on insect
  36. incomplete metamorphosis is
    • 3 stages egg, nymph, adult
    • - cockroaches and termites
  37. complete metamorphosis
    egg, larva, pupa,adult
  38. weed
    plant growing where not wanted
  39. weed classifications
    • - grasses
    • - sedges - triangular stem,a nd three rows of leaves
    • - broadleaves
  40. all plants go through 4 stages of growth
    • 1 seedlings
    • 2 vegetative state
    • 3 reproductive
    • 4 maturity
  41. annuals
    plants that complete a life cycle in one year
  42. biennials
    require two years to complete their life cycle.  emergence and growth first and flower second
  43. perennials
    live longer than 2 years and some forever, can produce new plants by means other than seed
  44. plant pathogens(living agents) 4 types
    • fungi- single celled and multi cell organisms
    • bacteria- -microscopic single celled
    • nematodes - microscopic non segmented worms

    viruses- require genetic material of host cell
  45. pesticide product 2 ingredients
    • active - chemicals control pest
    • inert - solvent AND CARRIERS O DELIVER PRODUCT OR liquids into which the active ingredient is dissolved or chemicals that keep the roduct from separating
  46. the combination of an active ingredient with a compatible inert ingredient
  47. sorption
    when it is necessary to adhere a liquid active ingredient onto a solid surface(powder, dust, or granule)
  48. sorption can be accomplished by 2 possible mechanisms
    adsorption - a chemical/physical attraction between the active ingredient and the surface of the solid

    absorption - entry of the active ingredient into the pores of the solid
  49. solution
    when a substance (the solute) is dissolved in a liquid (the solvent).
  50. a solution cannot be mechanically ________
  51. suspension
    a mixture of finely divided solid particles dispersed in a liquid
  52. most suspensions will have this appearance
  53. spike 80w is formulated as a wettable powder and forms a _______when mixed with water for application
  54. emulsion
    a mixture that occurs when one liquid is dispersed (as droplets) in another liquid.
  55. emulsions will have this appearance and will need this to keep from separating
    • milky
    • agitation
  56. formulation selection 6
    • applicator saftey
    • environmental concern
    • pest biology
    • available equipment
    • surfaces to be protected
    • cost
  57. solid formulations are divided into 2 groups
    • ready to use
    • concentrates
  58. solid formulation that are ready to use and those to be mixed with water
    • ready to use - dusts, granules, pellets
    • mixed with water - wettable powders, dry flowables, soluble powders
  59. dusts
    manufactured by the sorption of an active ingredient onto a finely ground, solid inert such as talc, clay, or chalk
  60. dust no longer used in
    large scale outdoor situation, drift hazard
  61. grannules
    similar to dusts but active ingredient is sorbed onto a larger particle ( clay, sand, or plant material)
  62. drawback to granules
    bulk, handling, uniform application, attractive to birds
  63. granules are applied_______and intended for
    • dry
    • soil
  64. pellets
    similar to granules, but active ingredient is combined with inert materials. uniform in size and shape
  65. pellets are typically used in
    spot applications with high degree of safty for user
  66. wettable powders
    a finely divided solids, typically mineral clays, to which an active ingredient is sorbed.
  67. dry flowables aka
    manufactured like wettable powders but the powder is aggragated in the granular particles

    water dispersable granules
  68. soluble powders
    not common, mixed with water in spray tank where they dissolve and form a true solution prior to spraying
  69. liquid formulations
    • liquid flowables
    • microencapsulates
    • emulsifiable concentrates
    • solutions
  70. liquid flowables
    like wettable powders buty the powder, dispersing agents, wetting agents, are mixed with water before packaging.. no inhalation hazard during mixing
  71. microencapsulates
    consist of a solid or liquid(containing an active ingredient) surrounded by a plastic or starch coating.
  72. encapsulation enhances applicator safety and provides _____. Liquid forms form _______
    in spray tank
    • time release
    • suspensions
  73. emulsifiable concentrates
    oil soluble active ingredient dissolved in an appropriate oil based solvent to which an emulsifying agent is added
  74. emulsifiable concentrates are mixed with water and applied as ___________
  75. emulsifiable concentrates allow ___________ to be sprayed in water as carrier
    oil soluble active ingredients
  76. emulsifiable concentrates disadvantages
    • - dermal hazard penetrate skin
    • - odor problem
    • - burn foilage
    • -damage rubber and plastic parts
  77. solutions
    water soluble active ingredients dissolved in water. require no agitation after thouroghly dissolved
  78. solutions are not ________to equipment
  79. solutions disadvantages
    some that are produces as dissolved salts can be caustic to skin
  80. RTU
    ready to use
  81. ULV
    ultra low volume, concentrates used in specialty situations( space spraying and fogging)
  82. problem with ULV
    • - dermal hazard during mixing and loading because of high concentration of active ingredient
    • - drift potential
    • - inhalation
  83. aerosols
    moves the active ingredient in form of a mist of very small particles
  84. fumigants
    form of a gas
  85. reading lables
    -20 % active ingredient, wettable powder
  86. synergists
    chemicals that can boost  the pesticidal activityof active ingredient
  87. common example of a synergist
    piperonyl butoxide
  88. adjuvants
    any compound that facilitates the action of pesticides or modifies characteristics of pesticide formulations or spray solutions.
  89. 3 kinds of adjuvants
    • - activator adjuvants- wetting agents
    • - spray modifier agents (stickers, foams
    • - utility modifiers(emulsifiers, anti foam
  90. toxicity
    capacity of a compound to cause harm
  91. toxicity is dose ______
  92. LD50 values
    LD50 represents the dose required to kill_______
    • -used to compare acute toxicity of pesticides
    • - 50% of population of test animals
  93. the lower the LD50 the
    - less pesticide required to kill
  94. a pesticide with a n LD50 value of 10 mg/kg is ___ times more toxic than pesticide  with LD50 of 100 mg/kg
    - 10
  95. LD50 values are not always given on label. signal words are...
    • - danger, higly toxic
    • - warning, moderately toxic
    • - caution, slighty toxic
  96. when possible choose pesticides with ____ LD 50 values
    - high
  97. ways of entry into body
    • dermal
    • respiration
    • oral
  98. safest formulation usually
    - granular or microencapsulated
  99. best way of removing low level pesticide contamination on clother
    prerinsing and regular washing
  100. if induce vomit make sure person forward kneeling or__________
    on right side if laying down
  101. after how many hours will pesticide have moved into intestine
  102. absortive charcoals prevent
    absorption from intestine
  103. cause of death in most pesticide poisoning vicitims is
    respiratory failure
  104. applying more than labled rate is
  105. best mode of transportation
    back of pick up
  106. pesticides should not be transported in
    compact, midsize autos except as last resort
  107. if car must be used place in
  108. never transport in
    • -passenger seat of closed vehicle
    • - allow passengers of pets to ride with pesticides
  109. this must accompany each pesticide for transport
  110. storage facility warning signs should be visible from
    50 ft
  111. store drums on
  112. pesticides should always be stored on which floor
  113. title III of Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA) also call emergency planning and community right to know act of 1986
    requires storage extremely hazardous materials to be reported to local emergency planning commissions
  114. product labels direct applicators to__________
    each empty pesticide container
    triple rinse
  115. triple rinsing is defined by a 1974 federal regulation as the_________each time using a volume of the normal diluent equal to approximately __________of container capacity
    • - flushing of container 3 times
    • - 10 percent
  116. render all metal and plastic containers unusable by
    puncturing or crushing
  117. In Indiana burning or burying containers is
    strictly prohibited
  118. two types of drift
    • particle drift- spray droplets
    • vapor drift - gas
  119. oil droplets drift _____than water based
  120. air is least turbulent just before__________and just after ______
    • - sunrise
    • _ sunset
  121. air most gusty between
    2 and 4 pm
  122. when air near soil surface is cooler than air above, can cause droplets to stay suspended in air. do not apply in these conditions
  123. high temps and low relative humidity may _______rate of evaporation of spray droplets
  124. even low volatility  compounds may become prone to vapor drift at temps above _______
    - 90
  125. how to practice drift control 4
    • operate at lowest pressure by nozzle design
    • use large nozzle opening
    • use most water possible per treated area
    • spray near target
  126. positively charged pesticide molecules will adsorb to _________charged clay particles
  127. process breakdown pesticide molecules int o simpler and less toxic compounds
  128. 3 types of degradation
    • microbial - fungi, algae eat
    • chemical - reacts with water, oxygen
    • photdegradation
  129. leaching
    movement of water down through soil
  130. the ease which a pesticide dissolves in water
    pesticide solubility
  131. pesticides strongly adsorbed to soil particles are very unlikely to
  132. ground water flows through aquifers at rates of a few ______in clay or silts to a few _______in sands
    • - inches per year
    • - inches per day
  133. the more water soluable the pesticide, the ______ the leaching potential
  134. spray before bees forage ________
    before dawn after dusk or less than 55
  135. passed in 1973 to provide protection for federally listed endangered wild plants and animals
    ESA endangered species act
  136. manufacturers need registration approval to market new product from
  137. coordinates agencies internal review and monitor status of registration
  138. future pesticide products now channeled towar pesticides derived from
    bacteria, virus fungi growth inhibitors
  139. "it is a violation of federal law to use this product in a manner inconstistent with its labeling"
    on every pesticide label
  140. label serves as instructions and
    legal measuring stick
  141. most comprehensive registration is granted under
    section 3 of FIFRA
  142. front panel of every pesticide product must say
    keep out of reach of children
  143. front of container must have
    signal word
  144. generally, minimum protective clothing on statment
    long sleeved shirt, long pants waterproof shoes
  145. label find registration number. 2 sets of numbers. first set is  second is
    • 1 identifies registrant
    • 2 represents registration issued to company by EPA
  146. on label before phrase EPA EST is
    establishment number to id locaton
  147. for help with spills call
    chemtrec 800 424 9300
Card Set
core test
core test