Motivation - Chapter 6

  1. Dialectic
    • person and environment act on each other reciprocally
    • the person's needs are fulfilled or frustrated by the environment and the environment produces new form of motivation in the person
  2. autonomy
    psychological need to experience self-direction and personal endorsement in the initiation and regulation of one's behaviour
  3. Perceived loves of causality (PLOC)
    an individual's understanding of the causal source of his or her motivated actions ranging from internal to external
  4. Volition
    • unpressured willingness to engage in an activity
    • distinction between those who feel free and those who feel coerced
  5. Perceived choice
    the sense of choice we experience when we find ourselves in environments that provide us with decision-making flexibility that affords us many opportunities from which to choose
  6. Autonomy-Support
    • interpersonal sentiment and behaviour to identify, nurture, and develop another's inner motivational resources
    • takes the other perosn's perspective
    • values personal growth opportunities
    • nurtures inner motivational resources
    • relies on flexible language
    • provides explanatory rationales
    • acknowledges and accepts expressions of negative affect
    • inapporpriate/listless behaviour are motivational problems to be solved
  7. Controlling Motivating Style
    • interpersonal sentiment and haviour to pressure another toward compliance with a prescribed way of thinking, feeling, or behaving
    • pressures the other toward a prescribed outcome
    • relies on outer sources of motivation
    • relies on pressuring language
    • neglects explanatory rationales
    • asserts power to silence negative affect and to resolve conflict
  8. Explanatory Rationales
    communicating the value, worth, meaning, utility, or importance of engaging in an uninteresting behaviour
  9. Benefits of Autonomy Support
    • nurtures autonomy, competence, and relatedness
    • promotes intrinsic motivation and mastery motivation
    • higher engagement and positive affect
  10. Competence
    • psychological need to be effective in interactions with the environment and it reflects the desire to exercise one's capacities and skills and, in doing so, to seek out and master optimal challenges
    • promoted by optimal challenge, structure, failure tolerance, feedback
  11. flow and optimal challenge
    • a state of concentration that involves a holistic absorption and deep involvement in a n activity
    • pleasurable; a person will continuously re-engage in an activity to experience it again
    • occurs when challenge and skill are perfectly matched
  12. structure
    • amount and clarity of information about what the environment expects the person to do to achieve desire outcomes
    • nurtures competence when there are clear goals and guidance
  13. feedback
    • comes from the task, comparisons between present and past, comparisons between self and others, evaluations of others
    • allows identification of strengths and new optimal challenges
  14. relatedness
    psychological need to establish close emotional bonds and attachments with other people and reflects the desire to be emotionally connected to and interpersonally involved in warm relationships
  15. Supporting relatedness
    • need to perceive that the other person in the relationship cares about your welfare and likes you
    • most importantly, perceive that the authentic, true self is recognized as important by the other
  16. exchange relationships
    • between acquaintances/people who do business together
    • no obligation to be concerned with the other person's needs or welfare
  17. communal relationships
    • between people who care about the welfare of the other
    • both parties care about the needs of the other and feel obligated to support each other's welfare
    • monitor and keep track of the other's needs, regardless of any forthcoming opportunities for reciprocity of material gain
    • experience tangible, economic gifts as detrimental to how friendly, relaxed and satisfying forthcoming interactions are likely to be
  18. Internalization
    • the process through which an individual transformation of formerly externally prescribed regulation or value into an internally endorsed one
    • happens in relationships that provide relatedness need satisfaction and clear and convincing rationale
  19. engagement
    • the intensity and emotional quality people show when they initiate and carry out activities
    • behavioural, emotional, and cognitive engagement, and voice
    • happens when there is autonomy support, structure, and involvement
  20. behavioural engagement
    on task attention, effort, persistence
  21. emotional engagement
    interest, enjoyment
  22. cognitive engagement
    preferences for challenge, self-regulation
  23. voice
    expressions of one's preferences and interests
  24. vitality
    • subjective experience of being alive, vital, and energized
    • aspect of well-being
Card Set
Motivation - Chapter 6
Psychological needs