psyc 270

  1. what is aggression
    • oBehavior
    • intended to hurt another person
    • o

    • oAny
    • behaviors whose intent is to inflict harm or injury on another living thing
    • o

    • oHostile
    • or forceful action intended to dominate or violate
    • o

    • oBehavior
    • that is intended to injury another person or to destroy property
  2. hostile type of aggression
    • nAct of aggression stemming from a
    • feeling of anger aimed at causing pain or injury
    • n“Hot”, impulsive, angry
  3. instrumental aggresion
    • pInstrumental
    • nAct of aggression aimed at
    • hurting someone for the purpose of fulfilling a goal
    • n“Cold”, mediated, calculated
  4. passive aggression
    • nAct of
    • omission
    • nWithholding
    • helpful behaviors
  5. active aggression
    • nct of
    • commission
    • nPerforming
    • harmful behaviors
  6. difference between violence and aggression
    • nViolence
    • is aggression that has its goal extreme harm, such as severe injury or death
    • pAll
    • violent acts are aggressive
    • pNot
    • all aggressive acts are violent
  7. two theories that support the idea that aggresion is innate
    • pPsychodynamic
    • – human motivational forces, such as sex and aggression, are based on instincts

    • nEros-
    • towards life, creation and love
    • nThanatos-
    • towards death, destruction and aggression

    • pEvolutionary
    • - Aggressive instinct has developed during the course of evolution because it
    • promotes the survival of the species.
  8. what are the two social learning theorys for aggressions
    • nSocial
    • learning theory
    • pAggression
    • is learned in the same way we learn social behaviors – by direct experience and
    • observing others
    • p

    • pModeling: observing and copying or imitating the
    • behavior of others
  9. what are the four steps of the modeling process
    • attention
    • retention
    • behavioral reproduction
    • motivation
  10. how does culture affect the inate nature of aggresion
    • nEmphasis on fairness, equity and
    • retaliation
    • pViolence breeds more violence
    • nChanges due to societal events
    • pIroquois- from peaceful hunters
    • to warriors
    • nRegional differences
    • p“Culture of Honor” - Nisbett
    • nInvolve norms that endorse more
    • violence and aggressive displays aimed at asserting one’s masculinity, pride
    • and power
    • nEvolved out of the desire to
    • protect property and portable wealth (e.g. Cattle)
    • nStill exists in southern men even
    • though the economic situation is different
  11. what are the internal causes of aggression
    • nInternal causes of aggression
    • pNeurological and chemical causes
    • pAge and gender n–
    • biological impulses to behave aggressively emerge around puberty
    • pFrustration
    • pMood
    • pHostile cognitive bias
  12. what are teh external causes of aggression
    • nExternal causes of aggression
    • pRejection, exclusion, and
    • taunting
    • pUnpleasant environments (pain and
    • discomfort)
    • p

    • pDomestic and family violence***
    • pWeapons effect***
    • pMass media***
  13. neurologial and chemical causes of aggression

    • nNeurological and chemical causes
    • n


    • nassociated with aggressive
    • behavior
    • p

    • pTestosterone
    • nmale sex hormone, increases
    • aggression
    • p

    • pSerotonin
    • nneurotransmitter, when low, more
    • aggression occurs
    • p

  14. nFrustration aggression hypothesis
    (Dollard et al.)
    • pThe
    • occurrence of aggressive behavior always preceded by the existence of
    • frustration; the existence of frustration always leads to some form of
    • aggression
  15. pFrustration:
    • nBlockage/interference
    • of a personal goal
    • nOccurs
    • due to relative
    • deprivation: social comparison theory
    • suggests that we compare ourselves to others to and if we are being deprived of
    • something we think others get or have we will get upset and frustrated
  16. nHostile cognitive bias
    • pThe
    • tendency to perceive ambiguous actions and social interactions as being
    • aggressive
  17. external causes of aggression
    • nRejection, exclusion, and
    • taunting

    • Unpleasant environments
  18. nDomestic violence:
    • pviolence that occurs within the
    • home or family, between people who have a close relationship with each other
  19. Weapons effects
    • pThe
    • increase in aggression that occurs as a result of the mere presence of weapons
  20. oReasons
    exposure to violence in the media increases aggression
    • 1.Social learning: If they can do it so can I
    • 2.Imitation: Oh, so that is how you do it
    • 3.Priming: I think it might be aggression I am feeling
    • 4.Desensitization: Another brutal beating…so what else is on???
  21. Social learning
    • we learn through observing
    • and imitating others
  22. Scripts
    • ways of behaving socially
    • that we implicitly learn from culture.
  23. Dehumanization
    • process of seeing victims
    • and nonhuman, which lowers inhibition against aggressive actions and makes
    • continued aggression more likely
  24. nDirty dozen of aggression:

    • 2.Attack
    • 3.Bad
    • intentions
    • 4.Unexpected
    • interruption in progress toward a goal
    • 5.Goal
    • is near when progress is thwarted
    • 6.Illegitimate
    • or arbitrary blocking of progress toward goal
    • 7.Relative
    • deprivation
    • 8.Aggressive
    • cues
    • 9.Aggressive
    • models
    • 10.Deindividuation in
    • aggressor
    • 11.Dehumanization
    • of the victim
    • 12.Environmental
    • factors (heat, noise, crowding)
  25. Catharsis
    • : idea that “blowing off
    • steam”- by performing an aggressive act, watching others engage in aggressive
    • behaviors, or engaging in an aggressive fantasy- will relieve built-up
    • aggressive energy and reduce the likelihood of further aggressive behavior.
  26. oIf we
    see aggression or violence, we become more aggressive
    oIf we
    act aggressively or violent, we become even more aggressive or violent
  27. oCan we reduce violence?
    • nPunishment/rewards
    • pRestrictive
    • punishment can be frustrating
    • pSevere
    • punishment results in compliance but not internalization
    • pRewards
    • can help reinforce inhibitory responses
    • nNonaggressive
    • models
    • nBuilding
    • empathy
    • pReduces
    • tendency to dehumanize
    • nParenting
    • and teaching alternative scripts
  28. What is a group
    • n2 or more people perceived as having at least
    • one of the following characteristics:
    • ¨Direct interactions with each
    • other over a period of time;
    • ¨Joint membership in a social
    • category based on sex, race or other attributes;
    • ¨A shared, common fate, identity
    • or set of goals.
  29. nCategory
    • ¨a class or group of things, ideas
    • or people with some quality or qualities in common
  30. nCategorization
    • ¨process of creating categories
    • some specific purpose
  31. How do we identify a
    category and how to we assign people to a category
    • nPrototypes
    • ¨Typical instances of a category
    • nHeuristics
    • ¨Simple rules for making complex decisions
    • and judgments
    • quickly
    • nSchemas
    • ¨Mental frameworks, developed through experience,
    • centering around a specific theme, that affect the processing
    • and organization of new social information.
  32. nCategory-based
    • ¨Expectations about a category, such as expectations about
    • people (e.g., their beliefs, traits, behavior, etc.) based on the groups they
    • belong to.

    • ¨What if these are exaggerated, flawed, or completely erroneous
    • and inaccurate?
  33. nPrejudice:
    • ¨A (hostile or negative) attitude toward people in a
    • distinguishable group, based solely on
    • their membership in that group.
    • ¨Based of generalizations derived from faulty or incomplete
    • information
  34. nStereotypes:
    • ¨Cognitive frameworks that influence the processing of social
    • information
    • ¨A belief that associates a group of people with certain traits
    • . Even when based on
    • reality, stereotypes tend to exaggerate
    • differences and understate similarities
    • between groups


    ¨Core of prejudice

    • ¨Generalizing characteristics, motives, or behaviors to an
    • entire group of people
  35. nSociocultural
    • ¨Prevailing attitudes of society
    • and those close to us
  36. Contrast
    • Effects A
    • tendency to perceive stimuli that differ from expectation as even more
    • different than they really are.
  37. Illusory
    • overestimate association
    • between variables
  38. Subtyping
    • form a new stereotype
    • about a subset
  39. Self-fulfilling
    • process where expectations
    • or stereotypes lead people to treats others (of a certain group) in a way that
    • makes them confirm their expectation
  40. nStereotype
    • ¨Those who are targets of negative
    • stereotypes can confirm those stereotypes paradoxically – by trying to
    • disconfirm them
    • ¨

    • ¨Apprehensiveness about confirming
    • existing stereotypes
    • ¨

    • ¨Any group stereotyped as inferior
    • can experience this
    • ¨

    • ¨If thinking about a negative
    • stereotype can lower your performance on a test then some kind of alternative
    • should be used to boost it
  41. Stereotype Threat
    • nThe apprehension experienced by members of a
    • minority group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype.
  42. Modern
    • A form of prejudice that
    • surfaces in subtle ways when it is safe, socially acceptable
    • and easy to rationalize
  43. What leads to prejudice?
    • nEvolutionary
    • pressures- to favor own people
    • nMedia-
    • frequent, unrealistic portrayals of minorities and women
    • nWicked
    • culture (socialization)
    • ¨“Us vs. Them”
  44. Aronson; Five Basic Causes to prejudice
    • nEconomic
    • and political competition
    • nTo gain material or power advantage
    • nDisplaced
    • aggression
    • nScapegoating- blaming powerless individuals for something that is not their
    • fault
    • nMaintenance
    • of status/self-image
    • nSocial Identity Theory
    • nThe prejudice personality
    • nAuthoritarian, rigid in believes, conventional values,
    • intolerant of weakness, highly punitive, suspicious, overly respectful to
    • authority
    • nCorrelated to early childhood experiences (insecure attachment,
    • threatening parental discipline) and thought to be due to displaced aggression
    • towards parents
    • nConformity
    • to norms
  45. social identity theory
    your personal identity is linked to your personal achivements

    • your groups achievements and how they put down another group
    • and both are liked to self esteem
  46. Minimal intergroup
    paradigm Minimum group paradigm
    • nmembers of groups created randomly
    • (irrelevantly) still give preferential treatment to other in-group members [in-group bias]
  47. s versus Them
    • nGroups are created on the basis of
    • similarities, downplaying differences between members of the in-group and
    • exaggerating the differences with members of different groups.
  48. Out-group Homogeneity Effect
    • In-group members
    • perceive those in the out-group as more similar to each other (homogeneous)
    • than they really are, as well as more homogeneous than the in-group members
    • are.
  49. In-group bias/favoritism
    • – positive feelings and
    • special treatment for people defined as part of the in-group.
  50. Out-group bias
    • snegative feelings and dicriminatory treatment
    • for people defined as part of the out-group.
  51. Ultimate
    Attribution Error
    • Our tendency to make dispositional
    • attributions about an individual’s negative behavior to an entire group of
    • people.
  52. Fundamental
    Attribution Error
    • Illusory Correlation
    • Confirmation Bias
  53. Daryl
    and Sandra Bem’s Nonconscious Ideology
    • A set of beliefs many
    • people hold (e.g., stereotypes, gender roles) because they cannot conceive of
    • alternative conceptions of the world.
  54. Implicit Attitudes-
    • ninvoluntary, uncontrollable, and at times
    • unconscious.
    • ¨Can we measure or stop/reduce
    • these?
  55. How can prejudice be
    • nThe theory that direct contact between
    • hostile groups will reduce prejudice under certain conditions.
    • nStateways can
    • change folkways
    • ¨Legislate equality, morality and
    • tolerance
    • nChange behavior
    • nMutual interdependence
    • nEmpathy
  56. nChanges in behavior will result in changes in
    attitudes, so increase direct contact
    • nconditions must exist:
    • ¨Equal status
    • ¨Personal interaction
    • ¨Cooperative activities
    • ¨Social norms
  57. exchange relationship
    relationships that ther is a equal exchange between parties
  58. communal realtionship
    a relationship where everyone else benefits
  59. anxious attachment style
    you are nerous when parents leave
  60. avoidance attachment stly
    you get mad when parents are tehre
  61. secure attachment stlye
    you know that yo0ur parents will comeback whne they leave
  62. ¡Intimate Relationships
    • lThree basic components:
    • ¡Feelings of attachment,
    • affection and love
    • ¡The fulfillment of
    • psychological needs
    • ¡The interdependence between
    • partners
  63. Passionate
    • An intense longing we
    • feel for a person. When in their presence we experience:
    • ¡ physiological arousal
    • ¡ shortness of breath
    • ¡ increased heart rate
    • ¡ bonding
    • when reciprocated, the feeling is fulfillment
    • and ecstasy, but when not, the feeling is sadness and despair
  64. Companionate

    • ¡caring deeply for a
    • person to whom we are committed but without the experience of passion or
    • arousal in the person’s presence.
    • ¡can be experienced in
    • nonsexual relationships, such as close friendships, or in sexual relationships,
    • where there is great intimacy but not great
    • passion
  65. 3 Ingredients to Love
    • ¡Intimacy: feeling of being close and bonded
    • ¡

    • ¡Passion: physiological arousal, sexual attraction
    • ¡

    • ¡Commitment: dedication or attachment
    • lShort-term: “I love my partner” or Long-term: “I expect my love for my partner to last for
    • the rest of my life”
  66. Romantic
    • :
    • passion and intimacy
  67. Companionate
    • :
    • intimacy and commitment
  68. Consummate
    • :
    • intimacy and commitment
  69. Evolutionary Psychology
    • The attempt to
    • explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that evolved over time
    • according to the principles of natural selection.
  70. The Person Next Door
    • ¡The Propinquity/Proximity
    • Effect: One of the simplest determinants of
    • interpersonal attraction is proximity
    • ¡The Mere Exposure Effect: The proximity effect occurs due to mere
    • exposure or our familiarity with someone.
    • ¡

    • l

  71. Reciprocal

    • ¡ Can
    • come about because of a self-fulfilling prophecy
    • ¡Curtis & Miller (1986) If we believe
    • somebody else likes us, we will be a more likable person in their presence
  72. Gain-Loss Effect
    • : theory that we like
    • people more if we feel we have improved/gained in their evaluation of us and we
    • dislike people more if we feel we have lost their favor
  73. Pratfall Effect
    • ¡we are attracted to competent people, but
    • when a highly competent (superior) person commits a blunder (screws up) we
    • actually come to like them more.
    • lJFK after the bay of pigs
    • lMartha Stewart and insider
    • trading
    • lOthers?
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psyc 270