1. Define fitness
    The ability to do physical activity
  2. Define health
    The freedom from diseases, such as those caused by bacteria and viruses.
  3. How can the general level of fitness be measured?
    By measuring your cardiovascular efficiency.
  4. Name five different ways that your fitness can be measured?
    Strength, flexibility, stamina, agility, speed
  5. What are proteins made up of?
    Amino Acids
  6. What is blood pressure measured in?
    Millimeters of mercury, mmHg
  7. What is systolic pressure?
    The maximum pressure the heart produces?
  8. What is diastolic pressure?
    The blood pressure between heart beats
  9. What can high blood pressure cause?
    Blood vessels to burst which can cause damage to the brain which is often called a stroke, it can also cause damage to the kidneys.
  10. What can low blood pressure cause?
    Dizziness, fainting as the blood supply to the brain is reduced and poor circulation to other areas of your body such as the fingers and toes.
  11. What can carbon monoxide do to the contents of the blood?
    It decreases the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood because it combines with haemoglobin preventing it from combining with oxygen so less oxygen is carried
  12. What is the formula for EAR?
    EAR = 0.6 x body mass in kg
  13. What does EAR stand for?
    Estimated average daily requirement
  14. Why are proteins from meat and fish called first class proteins?
    They contain all the essential amino acids that cannot be made by the human body
  15. Give some examples of foods that contain first class proteins
    Meat and fish
  16. What are second class proteins?
    Plant proteins as they do not contain all the essential amino acids.
  17. What do fats contain?
    Fatty acids and glycerol
  18. What are carbohydrates made up of?
    Simple sugars such as glucose
  19. What is the path of a reflex action?
    stimulus --> receptor ---> sensory neurone --->  central nervous system ---> motor neurone ---> effector ----> response
  20. What is the pathway of a spinal reflex?
    receptor ---> sensory neurone ---> relay neurone ---> motor neurone ---> effector

    (bypassing the CNS)
  21. What is the gap between neurones called?
    A synapse
  22. Describe the path of a nerve impulse across a synapse
    The arrival of an impulse triggers the release of a transmitter substance which diffuses across the synapse. The transmitter substance binds with receptor molecules in the membrane of the next neuron causing the impulse to continue
  23. What does the nerve impulse pass along?
    The axon
  24. What are the five different types of drugs?
    Depressants, painkillers, stimulants,performance enhancers and hallucinogens
  25. How do stimulants work?
    They cause more neurotransmitter substances to cross the synapses
  26. How is the alcoholic content of the alcoholic drinks measured?
    Units of Alcohol
  27. What does drinking alcohol increase?
    • Reaction Times
    • Increases the risk of accidents
  28. What does cigarette smoke cause in the lungs?
    It contains many chemicals that stop the cilia moving
  29. What are carcinogens?
    Cancer causing chemicals
  30. What is 'smokers cough' a result of?
    • Dust and particulates in the cigarette smoke collecting and irritating the epithelial lining
    • Mucus not being moved by the cilia
  31. How do depressants work?
    They block the transmission of nerve impulses across synapses by binding with receptor molecules in the membrane of the receiving neurone.
  32. What is Homeostasis?
    Keeping a constant internal environment
  33. What does Monocular vision provide?
    A wider field of view but poorer distance judgement than binocular vision has.
  34. What is genetic variation caused by?
    Mutations and fertilisation
  35. What does ' Homozygous' mean?
    Having identical alleles
  36. What does 'Hetrozygous' mean?
    Having different alleles
  37. What are inherited disorders caused by?
    Faulty alleles, most of which are recessive
  38. What are alleles?
    Different versions of the same gene
  39. What is a placebo?
    A harmless pill which is used as a comparison in drug testing so the effect of a new drug can be assessed
  40. What do antibiotics do?
    The help fight bacteria and fungi they destroy a pathogen
  41. How do antivirals work?
    They fight against viruses they slow down the pathogen's development
  42. What are pathogens?
    Disease causing organisms
  43. How does the eye focus on distant objects?
    The ciliary muscles relax and the suspensory ligaments tighten so the lens has a less rounded shape
  44. What causes red- green colour blindness?
    A lack of specialised cells in the retina
  45. What does the cornea and lens do to light rays?
    They are refracted (bent)
  46. What are 'benign' tumour cells?
    Harmless and divide slowly such as in warts
  47. What hormone controls the blood sugar levels?
Card Set
OCR Gateway B1 Revision