What is the reason that average IQ levels are rising?
primarily bc the lower levels are rising
Do other factors beside intellingence competency affect IQ scores?
Wechsler intelligence scales) What was Wechsler dissatisfied about the 1937 S-B?
it only ended with one score
Wechsler intelligence scales) what did wechsler think about the age scale concept on the 1937 S-B?
the age scale concept made it very difficult to evaluate the intellectual functioning of adults
Wechsler intelligence scales) what did the added emphasis on speed in the S-B do?
it put older adults in a disadvantage
Wechsler intelligence scales) what else did the S-B not cosider about intellectual performance?
intellectual performance could deteriorate in older adults
Point scale concept) For what population was the Wechsler-Bellevue aimed for?
Point scale concept) what was one problem with S-B in how its items were organized?
- there were different types of items at each age level and various types of items were scattered though out the test without an organization
- *a subject might have fail a section therefore the subject would not be able to be tested on other areas
Point scale concept) what was the point scale? (2)
-items of similar content were grouped together
-subject would get a score reflecting how well they could do on each type of content
What did Wechsler do to the raw scores on each scale?
- he standarized the scores (z-scores) so that each scale was population-referenced
- *this made it possible to compare an individuals performance on a given scale to all members of the standardization sample
Why did Wechsler develop norms for each level of adults?
so that subject could be compared to others of their age group
what is a deviation IQ?
it is a standard score with a mean of 100 and a SD of 15 (16 then).
What did wechsler do to not have his test depend on verbal scores?
he made almost half of his test made up of nonverbal intellectual functions
what was anotehr added a benefit of having nonverbal intellectual functions questions?
it provided the clinician with a good oppurtunity for observing behavior
In 1955 what did Wechsler do?
changed the name of his test to Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
what significant improvements did he provide for WAIS? (1)
- Wechsler increased and broadened the standardization sample
- * he also changed few items, and changed name
what year was the WAIS-R published?
WHen was WAIS-III published?
When was WAIS-IV?
in the summer of 2008
how many verbal and non verbal did WAIS-III have?
- 7 and 7
- *not all are necessary to produce a full-scale IQ score
verbal subtests) Vocabulary) What is vocabulary subtest most resistant to?
age and brain damage
verbal subtests)Vocabulary- what type of intelligence is it?
- crystallized intelligence
- *once youve got it youve got it
verbal subtests) vocab) what can it be used to evaluate?
verbal subtests) vocab- what is premorbid IQ?
is before something happened that might have caused deterioration in general intellectual functioning
verbal subtests) which subtest is mostly correlated with total score?
verbal subtests) vocab- what is the main testing point for this?
asks subjects to define a list of increasingly less common and more abstract words
verbal subtests) similarities- what does this test on?
- describing similarites of 15 paired items that increases in difficulty
- *how are ____ and a ____ alike?
verbal subtests) similarities-how can a subject received full credit for their answers?
full credit is given for responses that name the highest level categories
verbal subtests)arithmetic- how/what does this test on? (2)
-15 relatively simple questions of increasing difficulty
-they are read to the subject then subject must solve them in their head
verbal subtests) arithmetic- what is this subtest susceptible to?
to the effect of brain injury or emotional problems
verbal subtests) digit span- how/what does this test on? (2)
-requires the subject to repeat series of digits after the tester.
-half of the test is to be repeated forward and backward
*it keeps getting longer the more you get right
verbal subtests) digit span- what can affect this subtest?
verbal subtests) Information- how/what does this test on?
a set of increasingly difficult requests for information
ex) name 2 generals of the army? how many people are in congress?
verbal subtests) comprehension- how/what does this test on?
-mesures common sense
verbal subtests) comprehension- what are the 3 types of questions?
-what should be done in a given situation?
-provide a logical explanation of some rule of phenomenon
verbal subtests) comprehension- what 2 things does this subtest reveal?
-can be a good estimate of premorbid functioning
-may reveal emotional and cultural problems
verbal subtests) Letter-numbering sequencing-how/what does this test on?
seven sets of 3 items in which letters and numbers are given in an alternating sequence and individuals are asked to re-order the numbers then letter in a correct sequence
ex) Z,3,B1,2,A> 1,2,3,A,B,Z
performance subtests) Picture completion- how/what does this test on? (2)
-picture is shown in which a important detail is missing
-subject must indicate what is missing or can point to the spot where the missing thing should be
**subtest is timed in that the subject must find correct answer withing 20 seconds or does not receive credtit
performance subtests)(digit symbol coding) what/how does this test on? (2)
-subject is presented with boxes in which the top halves contains the number 1-9 and the bottom halves contain matching simple symbols, they are then shown boxes with bottom halves is empty
-subject must finish filling out the symbols in bottom halves with 90 second time limit
performance subtests) digit symbol coding - what does this measure? (2)
-fine motor coordination and
performance subtests) Block design- how/what does this test on? (2)
-nine plastic blocks are provided which are diagonally split into a red half and white half
pictures are presented to the subject whcih the subject must copy using the tops of the blocks
performance subtests) matrix reasoning- description of test
individual is asked to choose one of the several boxes with a piece of pattern in them which will logically complete the pattern in the picture at the top of the page.
performance subtests) picture arrangement- description of test
-the subject is given the squares of a cartoon sequence in the wrong order and must rearrange them into the right order so that they tell a story that makes sense.
performance subtests) picture arrangement- what does this test measure?
how much a subject pays attention to apparently minor details that tell much about the correct order
performance subtests) picture arrangement- how is subject reqrded for extra credit?
if he completes the tasks quickly
performance subtests) symbol search- description of the test (3)
-the subject is shown two figures fillowed by 5 additional figures
-subject must figure out whether one of the first figures is contained in the second set and mark yes or no
-subject is timed; 120 secs for 60 items
performance subtests) object assembly- description of test?
- -five cut up pictures of common objects in whcih pieces are scrambled order then the subject must assemble them into the correct object
- *picture puzzle
-time limit is placed on each item
performance subtests) object assmebly- how is extra credit awarded?
rapid correct completion
performance subtests) which subtest was replaced on the WAIS-IV and replaced wiht what?
WAIS-IV; Visual puzzles
performance subtests) visual puzzles (new in WAIS-IV) description of test
testee is asked to assmeble a picture (colored) from some of the pattern presented
performance subtests) what does the symbol search measure?
speed of information processing
What is the mean and SD of subscales?
mean of 10 and SD of 3
Whta is the mean and SD of VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ?
mean of 100 and SD of 15
how are the 4 index scores calculated by?
- combining other subscale scores
- *again converted to standard scores
what are the four index scores that are calculated by combining other subscale scores?
interpreting scores and their comparisons)Verbal performance IQ- what number of IQ points is considered meaningful?
- *we do not know what it means
- could be : brain damage, problems with motor skills, non-verbal learning disorder, language problems, dyslexia, visual problems
pattern analysis) what does a scatter pattern of scores indicate?
some sort of brain damage
pattern analysis) do the subtests of a testee give a sort of pattern or scattered?
pattern analysis) what is a strong indicator that person has declined from an earlier higher level of intellectual functioning?
if vocab is much higher than most of the other scores
psychometric properties of the WAIS III) How is the standarization?
consisted of 2450 adults from all age groups and many geopgraphical and cultural groups
psychometric properties of the WAIS III) how is the reliability?
- extremely high reliability scores
- *no matter how calculated and even longitudinally
psychometric properties of the WAIS III) how is the validity?
WAIS correlates highly with a great number of other criteria of intellectual functioning
do all 3 of wechslers IQ tests developed the same?
yes, same format and same basic types of subscales
What age range was the WAIS designed for?
adults: 16 and up
what age range was the WISC designed for?
what age range was WPPSI designed for?
children: 2 years 6months through 6
what does the WPPSI stand for?
Wechsler preschool and primary scale of intelligence
what is the problem with IQ scores for young children and why?
the iq scores tend to be very unstable bc of their lack of language skills
what does the current version of the WISC use a considerable amount?
what two types of intelligences do wechslers tests allow to compare?
fluid and crystallized intelligence