Intro to Anthropology Vocab

  1. primates
    • -Large-brained, mostly tree-dwelling mammals with three-dimensional color vision and grasping hands. Humans are primates.
    • -An order within class Mammalia. Large-brained arboreal mammals with stereoscopic color vision and grasping hands (and sometimes feet). Includes, prosimians, monkeys, apes, and hominids.
  2. anthropology
    The holistic study of the human species. Anthropology includes the study of human biology, human physical evolution, human cultural evolution, and human adaptation.
  3. ethnography
  4. paleoanthropology
    A specialty that studies the human fossil record.
  5. human biology
  6. evolution
    Change through time, usually with reference to biological species, but may also refer to changes within cultural systems.
  7. culture
    Ideas and behaviors that are learned and shares. Also, the system made up of the sum total of the ideas and behaviors that is unique to a particular society of people. Nonbiological means of adaptation.
  8. linguistic anthropology
  9. osteology
    The study of the structure, function, and evolution of the skeleton.
  10. physical anthropology
    The traditional name for biological anthropology.
  11. biological anthropology
    A subfield of anthropology that studies humans as a biocultural species.
  12. biocultural anthropology
  13. archaeology
    A subfield of anthropology that studies the human cultural past and the reconstruction of past cultural systems.
  14. paleopathology
    The study of disease and nutritional deficiency in prehistoric populations, usually through the examination o skeletal material.
  15. hominid
    Modern human beings and our ancestors, generally defined as the primates who habitually walk erect. Technically, the members of family Hominidae.

    Hominidae-In a cladistic taxonomy, a subfamily that icludes chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans. (In such a taxonomy, Hominidae would include the African great apes and humans.)
  16. cultural anthropology
    A subfield of anthropology that focuses on human cultural behavior and cultural systems and the variations in cultural expression among human groups.
  17. artifacts
  18. forensic anthropology
    A subfield of anthropology that applies anthropology to legal matters. Usually used with reference to the identification of skeletal remains and the assessment of time and cause of death.
  19. adaptation
    The state in which an organism is adjusted to and can survive in its environment through its physical traits and behaviors. Also, the process by which an organism develops this state through natural processes.
  20. ethnology
  21. material culture
  22. primatology
    A specialty of anthropology that studies nonhuman primates.
  23. deduction
    Suggesting specific data that would be found if a hypothesis were true, a step in the scientific method involving the testing of hypothesis.
  24. data
  25. binomial nomenclature
  26. uniformitarianism
    The idea that present-day geological and biological process can also explain the history of the earth and its life. Compared to catastrophism.
  27. creation science
  28. observation
  29. falsifiable
  30. taxon
  31. adaptive radiation
    The evolution and spreading out of related species into new niches.
  32. intelligent design
    The idea that an intelligent designer played a role in some aspect of the evolution of life on earth, usually the origin of life itself. Generally, a thinly disguised version of scientific creationism.
  33. hypothesis
    Educated guesses to explain natural phenomena. In the scientific method, hypotheses must be testable. Compared to theory.
  34. paradigm
  35. catastrophism
    The idea that the history of the earth is explained by a series of global catastrophes, either natural or divine in origin. Compare with uniformitarianism.
  36. natural selection fitness
  37. experimentation
  38. immutability
  39. theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics
  40. population
  41. scientific method
    The process of conducting scientific inquiry. Requires he generation, testing, and acceptance or rejection of hypotheses.
  42. taxonomy
    A classification based on similarities and differences. In biology, the science of categorizing organisms and of naming them so as to reflect their relationships. Compare with cladistics and see phenetic taxonomy.
  43. mutation
    Any mistake in an organism's genetic code.
Card Set
Intro to Anthropology Vocab
Based on Dr. Wihr's ATH 101 course and Biological Anthropology by Michael Park, this vocab list is comprehensive to an Anthropology 101 - Introduction to Anthropology course.