flashcard ch2 hg+d

  1. Lack of folic acid may increase risk of spina bifida
    Neural tube does not close properly (hole is spine)
  2. Prolonged/extreme stress in pregnant women
    • increases hormones (cortisol) reducing oxygen
    • weakens mother ’ s immunity
    • makes mothers more likely to smoke or drink alcohol
  3. Teenage mothers
    • often suffer economic and educational disadvantage, poor prenatal care, and marital difficulties
    • likelier to experience pregnancy, labor, and delivery problems
    • have children who do less well in school and have behavioral problems
    • Support of a relative reduces problems
  4. Older mothers (35 and older)
    more likely to have difficulty getting pregnant, miscarriages, and stillbirths
  5. Older mothers (40 and older)
    higher risk of Down syndrome
  6. Teratogens: drugs, diseases, or environmental hazards causing abnormal prenatal development
    Alcohol, aspirin, caffeine, nicotine, thalidomide
  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
    • Results from drinking 5+ oz. of alcohol a few times each week during pregnancy
    • mental retardation, facial deformities (wide spaced eyes, flattened nose, etc), and heart defects
    • behavioral issues
    • difficulty understanding difference between right and wrong
  8. Diseases effecting prenatal development
    AIDS, cytomegalovirus, genital herpes, rubella (German measles), syphilis
  9. Environmental hazards for prenatal development
    Lead, mercury, PCBs, X-rays, and cell phones
  10. five ways teratogens influence prenatal development
    • The effect of the teratogen depends upon the genotype of the organism
    • The impact of teratogens changes over the course of prenatal development
    • Each teratogen affects a specific aspect of prenatal development
    • The impact of teratogens depends on the dosage
    • Damage from teratogens is not always evident at birth
  11. Genetic Counseling
    Helps to assess the chances of inherited disorders
  12. prenatal diagnosis
    • Ultrasound
    • Amniocentesis
    • Chorionic villus sampling
    • Fetal medicine
    • Administering medicine to the fetus
    • Fetal surgery to correct spina bifida and circulatory problems
    • Genetic engineering involves replacing defective genes with synthetic normal genes
  13. Stage 1of labor
    • (12-24 hours before birth)
    • Contractions become increasingly stronger and more rhythmic
    • Cervix enlarges to ~10 centimeters
  14. Stage 2 of labor
    • (<1 hour before birth)
    • Baby passes through cervix, entering vagina
    • Baby’s head appears (crowning); birth occurs
  15. Stage 3
    • (minutes after birth)
    • Placenta is expelled
    • examined by medical
    • if not expelled fully, major problems for the mother
  16. Childbirth classes
    • Mothers taking these classes use less anesthesia
    • Explain pregnancy and delivery processes
  17. relaxation and coaching techniques to manage pain without using anesthetics
    • Anesthesia limits mother’s ability to use muscles to push
    • May result in use of mechanical devices that could hurt baby
    • Can affect baby, causing withdrawal and irritability for days or weeks post-birth
  18. lamaze method
    • relaxing, breathing
    • dad's involved
  19. Hypoxia
    inadequate blood and oxygen to baby
  20. Low birth weight
    Babies weighing less than 5.5 pounds
  21. Very Low birth weight
    Babies weighing less than 3.3 pounds
  22. Extremely low birth weight
    Below 2.2 pounds (do not fare well)
Card Set
flashcard ch2 hg+d
chapter 2 human growth and development