Anatomy and Physiology Exam 2

  1. heart
    the transport pump of the cardiovascular system
  2. pericardium
    a double-walled sac enclosing the heart
  3. cardiac tamponade
    a serious life threatening inflammation of the pericardium
  4. pulmonary circuit
    the blood vessels that carry blood to and from the lungs
  5. systemic circuit
    the blood vessels that carry blood to and from all body tissues
  6. epicardium
    also known as the visceral layer; external heart surface which is an integral part of the heart wall
  7. myocardium
    the middle layer of the heart; composed mainly of cardiac muscle; the layer that contracts
  8. endocardium
    the inner layer of the heart wall; white sheet of endothelium resting on a thin connective tissue layer
  9. atria
    superior heart chambers that receive blood
  10. ventricles
    inferior heart chambers that pump blood
  11. auricles
    small, wrinkled appendages located on top of atria which increase atrial volume a bit
  12. fossa ovalis
    a shallow depression in the interatrial septum where an opening called the foramen ovale existed in the fetal heart
  13. fossa ovalis
    depression marking the spot of the foramen ovale in the fetal heart
  14. superior vena cava
    returns blood from body regions superior to the diaphragm
  15. inferior vena cava
    returns blood from body regions below the diaphragm
  16. coronary sinus
    collects blood draining from thee myocardium
  17. pulmonary veins
    transports blood from lungs to heart
  18. coronary circulation
    the functional blood supply to the heart muscle itself
  19. angina pectoris
    thoracic pain caused by a fleeting deficiency in blood delivery to the myocardium caused by vasospasm or stress induced from too much activity
  20. myocardial infarction
    prolonged coronary blockage leading to oxygen deficiency in affected area and cell death
  21. stenosis
    narrowing and stiffening of the valve
  22. atrioventricular (AV) valve
    prevent back-flow into the atria when the ventricles contract
  23. tricuspid valve
    right AV valve; has 3 flexible cusps
  24. mitral valve
    left AV valve with only 2 cusps; also known as bicuspid valve
  25. papillary mucles
    contract with other ventricular muscles to apply pressure to the chordae tendineae
  26. chordae tendineae
    tiny white collagen cords attached to each AV valve anchoring them to the papillary muscle
  27. semilunar (SL) valves
    aortic and pulmonary valves; guard the bases of the large arteries of the large arteries issuing from the ventricles; prevent back-flow into ventricles
  28. sinoatrial (SA) node
    generates impulses about 75 times/minute when person is resting; depolarizes faster than any other part of the myocardium; found in the right atrial wall
  29. sinus rhythm
    determines heart rate
  30. atrioventricular (AV) node
    smaller diameter fibers; fewer gap junctions so conducts impulses more slowly;
  31. atrioventricular (AV) bundle
    bundle of His; in the superior part of the interventricular septum; only electrical connection between atria and ventricles
  32. right and left bundle branches
    two pathways in the interventricular septum that carry the impulses toward the apex of the heart
  33. purkinje fibers
    complete pathway into the apex and ventricular walls
  34. ectopic focus
    abnormal pacemaker takes over
  35. electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
    a composite of all the action potentials generated by nodal and contractile cells at a given time
  36. heart murmurs
    abnormal heart sounds most often indicative of valve problems
  37. cardiac cycle
    all events associated with blood flow through the heart during one complete heart beat
  38. systole
  39. diastole
  40. heart rate (HR)
    number of beats per minute
  41. stroke volume (SV)
    volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each heart beat
  42. cardiac reserve
    difference between resting and maximal cardiac output
  43. preload
    degree of stretch of cardiac muscle cells before they contract
  44. contractility
    contractile strength at a given muscle length, independent of muscle stretch and EDV
  45. afterload
    pressure that must be overcome for ventricles to eject blood, pressure in aorta and pulmonary trunk
  46. hypocalcemia
    not enough calcium; depresses heart
  47. hypercalcemia
    too much calcium; increases irritability of heart and may cause spastic contractions
  48. hypokalemia
    not enough potassium; arrhythmias and weak beats
  49. hyperkalemia
    too much potassium; lowers resting potential and can lead to block and arrest
  50. tachycardia
    abnormally fast heart rate, greater than 100 bpm
  51. bradycardia
    heart rate slower than 60 bpm
  52. coronary atherosclerosis
    poor blood flow to cardiac cells makes the heart weak and unable to contract
  53. commotio cordis
    mild blow to the chest cause heart to stop
  54. cor pulmonale
    right sided heart failure due to excessive pressure in the pulmonary circuit
Card Set
Anatomy and Physiology Exam 2
vocabulary from chapters 18 and 19