the Cell -quiz 3

  1. phospholipid bilayer- semipermeable
    describe the cell membrane structure
  2. Hydrophobic
    eg: O2 , CO2 , & fats 
    what easily permeates a cell membrane?
  3. phosphorous group (polar head) - Hydrophillic part
    glycerol backbone
    2 fatty acids (nonpolar tail) - Hydrophobic part
    List the parts in a phospholipid
  4. water, glucose, amino acids
    What cannot easily pass through the cell membrane?
  5. from a greater concentration to a lesser concentration
    What is diffusion?
  6. the diffusion of water
    What is osmosis?
  7. from HYPOTONIC to Hypertonic regions
    what direction does water move?
  8. isotonic-  cell is stable, concentration of water on inside is same as outside

    hypertonic- water pours out of the cell, causing it to shrink

    hypotonic- water pours in to cell, causing it to swell
    • Isotonic
    • hypertonic
    • hypotonic
  9. less solute, more water
    What is a hypotonic solution?
  10. facilitated diffusion and active transport
    name two types of carrier mediated transport
  11. no energy required, this is how glucose permeates cell membrane
    facilitated transport
  12. energy required, this is how amino acids, sodium, potassium, etc permeates cell membrane
    active transport
  13. is the process of engulfing a solid particle by a completely wrapping around it.  It's like a sheet that envelopes- no mouth.  THis is how larger objects permeate cell
    define phagocytosis
  14. made of double membrane with pores, contains chromatin (the combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell. The primary functions of chromatin are 1) to package DNA into a smaller volume to fit in the cell, 2) to strengthen the DNA to allow mitosis, 3) to prevent DNA damage, and 4) to control gene expression and DNA replication)
  15. the process by which a cell, which has previously replicated each of its chromosomes, separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets of chromosomes, each set in its own new nucleus
  16. nucleotides!
    C G A T
    DNA is made of
  17. nucleotides!
    C G A U
    RNA is made of
  18. A - T
    C - G
    How do nucleotides pair?
  19. its a message that tells you how to make a protein
    What does DNA do?
  20. DNA segment for one protein (about 20,000 protein coding genes in human)
    What is a gene?
  21. DNA sequence gets converted to RNA

    RNA copy of the gene (DNA segment, the message)
    What is transcription?
  22. RNA message into amino acids

    Amino acids joined together (according to the message that was transcribed)
    What is translation?
  23. DNA gets copied via RNA, RNA gets translated into specific combinations of amino acids- makes the protein.  Proteins make our characteristics
    protein making process and expression
  24. where the proteins are assembled from amino acids.  two types exist, free and bound
    What are ribosomes?
  25. Forms an interconnected network of membrane vesicles (network inside the cell). 2 types: rough and smooth.

    Rough: is studded with ribosomes aka bound (sites of protein synthesis for stuff outside the cell)

    Smooth: smooth network without the ribosomes. concerned with lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and detoxification
    What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
  26. secretion device, its like the shipping room
    Golgi apparatus
  27. package of oxidative enzymes
    where ATP is produced
    self replicating
    we inheirit all only from mom (inside ova)
  28. packages of digestive enzymes
    WBC digestion after phagocytosis
    Apoptosis- programmed cell death
    Necrosis- traumatic cell death
  29. determines shape of the cell
  30. sperm motility
    Cilia- sweeping motion
    cell projections
  31. tight junctions- welded
    desmosomes- button
    gap junctions- tubes (electrical charges past thru)
    cell junctions
  32. chemical process inside the cell.  Two types: anabolic---> put together
    catabolic---> take apart
    Cell Metabolism
  33. most common way: breakdown of food/glucose aka the oxidation of glucose
    How is ATP formed?
  34. glycolysis ---> Kreb's cycle---> ATP
    Oxidation of glucose
  35. CO2
    Sugar (glucose) eventually gets broken into?
  36. water!  joins up with the oxygen we breath
    The excess H (hydrogen) from krebs and cytochromes (stuff in the mitochondria) will eventually make....
  37. no oxygen is available to aid in breakdown of glucose.  glycolysis makes the pyruvic acid, which turns into lactic acid b/c there is no oxygen (instead of entering kreb's cycle)
  38. membrane-bound (i.e. inner mitochondrial membrane) heme-proteins they are primarily responsible for the generation of ATP (via electron transport)
    what are cytochromes?
  39. soybeans
    What is the best PLANT source of amino acid Lysine?
Card Set
the Cell -quiz 3
cell parts, intro A&P quiz stuff