Chapter 2 Human Growth and Development

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  1. Genotype
    actual set of genes a person inherits
  2. phenotype
    genes that are actually expressed - characteristic is the result of the interaction of genotype and the environment
  3. alleles
    different forms of same gene
  4. homozygous
    same allele on a pair of chromosomes
  5. heterozygous
    different alleles on a pair of chromosomes
  6. behavioral genetics
    branch that deals with the inheritance of traits
  7. polygenic inheritance
    phenotype reflects the combined activity of a number of distinct genes
  8. genetic disorders
    resulting from inherited harmful genes
  9. down syndrome
    an extra 21 st chromosome
  10. disorders of the sex chromosomes
    • more common than down syndrome
    • klinefelter's syndrome
    • XYY complement
    • Turner's syndrome
    • XXX Syndrome
  11. niche-picking
    people seek environments that fit their genotype
  12. Zygote
    begins with fertilization of the egg by the sperm and ends when implanted in wall of the uterus (0-2weeks)
  13. Embryo
    • 2-8 weeks
    • period of rapid growth in which most of the major body structures are created
  14. Fetus
    • 8 weeks - birth
    • becomes much larger and many bodily systems necessary for life begin to function
  15. prenatal development influenced by
    mother's age, nutrition, amount of stress experienced
  16. teratogens
    drugs, disease, and environmental hazards can cause prenatal development to go awry
  17. impact of teratogens depends on...
    genotype of organism, period of development when exposed (usually affect specific aspect of prenatal development)
  18. ultrasound
    sound waves used to get "picture" of fetus in womb (non-invasive)
  19. amniocentesis
    needle used to collect sample of amniotic fluid
  20. chorionic villus sampling
    prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from the chorion
  21. stages of labor
    • initial phase - cervix enlarges
    • baby's journey - from uterus into the world (birth)
    • delivery of the placenta
  22. natural childbirth
    aims to reduce labor pain (less medication) by relaxation techniques
  23. (birth complication) lack of oxygen
    when umbilical cord is pinched closed during delivery or their lungs do not work properly
  24. birth complications - born prematurely
    lag behind full-term babies during 1st year, bust soon catch up
  25. birth complication - low birth weight
    can develop normally when good medical care and supportive environment - babies with very low, or extremely low birth weight (do not fare well)
  26. birth complication - cephalopelvic
    infant's head is larger than the pelvis, making it impossible for the baby to pass through the birth canal
  27. birth complications - irregular position
    shoulder presentation - baby lies crosswise in the uterus and the shoulder appears first
  28. breech presentation
    buttocks appear first
  29. preeclampsia
    a condition in mothers characterized by high blood pressure, protein in the urine, and swelling in the extremities due to fluid retention
  30. prolapsed umbilical cord
    umbilical cord precedes the baby through the birth canal is squeezed shut cutting off oxygen to the baby
  31. Infant mortality
    in USA 9/1000 babies live less than one year
Card Set
Chapter 2 Human Growth and Development
chapter 2 prenatal-birth
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