1. Vassal
    A feudal term meaning ‘servant,’ it was applied to anyone who used the land in some way, or answered to a higher political authority.
  2. Saladin
    • He was the wise and powerful commander of Muslim armies who
    • defended the ‘Holy Land’ from the invading crusader armies.
  3. Remus and Romulus
    According to legend, these two warring brothers co-founded Rome.
  4. Plebians
    • These were the lower working classes of Rome. With the republic, they
    • gained the power of elected leaders.
  5. Peasants and Serfs
    • These poor farmers worked their lord’s land, owning few possessions
    • and no land of their own.
  6. Patricians
    These were wealthy Roman families who descended from the founders of Rome.
  7. Nero
    He was a demented Roman emperor who obsessed with theatrical performances at the Odeon, often demanding to act in plays himself. He also initiated terrible persecutions against Christians, and some accused him of purposely setting Rome on fire.
  8. Martin Luther
    • He was a brave German monk who dared to challenge the Catholic
    • Church, decrying what he saw as perversions from Scripture.
  9. Lord
    • A feudal term meaning ‘master,’ it was applied to any man who ruled
    • the lands and people of an estate or manor.
  10. Leonardo de Vinci
    He was a revolutionary mind of the Renaissance, remembered most for his Mona Lisa and The Last Supper pieces.
  11. Latins
    • They were the ancient inhabitants of Latium and surrounding cities,
    • including Rome.
  12. Knight
    This name was applied to any noble who performed military service as a trained mounted warrior.
  13. Julius Caesar
    He was a popular Roman general and leader, murdered by Senators and aristocrats in 44 BC after gaining enormous influence with the people.
  14. Hannibal
    He was a mighty Carthaginian general who led assaults against the Roman Empire. His strategies were legendary.
  15. Gladiators
    • These were fighters who performed for exhibition in the Roman
    • Colosseum, often in fights to the death.
  16. Constantine
    Known as The Great, he issued the Edict of Milan as the first Christian emperor of Rome, effectively ending persecution of Christians.
  17. Augustus
    Actually named Octavian, he was the first emperor of Rome.
  18. Charlemagne
    Charles the Great (742–814), king of the Franks 768–814; as Charles I, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire 800–814.
  19. King Louis
    Son of Charlemagne, he was raised by priests and inherited his father’s empire. His leadership, however, was not as strong as his father’s.
  20. The Punic Wars
    were three spectacular conflicts between the superpowers of the Mediterranean world, Rome and Carthage. (“Punic” comes from Rome’s name for Carthage)
  21. Parapets
    were low walls around the top edge of a tower or castle wall.
  22. Flagellants
    were groups of medieval Christians who practiced public self-mutilation, beating, and whipping in order to appease God’s wrath on society, particularly during the societal panic caused by the Black Plague.
  23. Crusades
    were a series of religious-military conflicts waged by much of Christian Europe against Muslim forces occupying the Holy Lands and Jerusalem.
  24. The Keep
    was the strongest and most heavily fortified part of the castle as it was designed to be the last line of defense. They usually housed the owner of the castle and his family.
  25. The Portcullis
    was the main gate to the castle. It was made of heavy wood and was reinforced with iron grating.
  26. The Circus Maximus
    was an enormous Roman stadium seating approximately 250,000 people, featuring an equally large race track on which chariot races were held.
  27. Feudalism
    was a way of life, common throughout the Middle Ages, based upon the ownership and use of land.
  28. The Pantheon
    was a spectacular temple in Rome, outfitted with imposing pillars and a great dome, dedicated to the worship of Roman gods and deities.
  29. The Baths
    was a place of social gathering popular among many Romans. People attended for purposes of cleansing, relaxation, gossip, or sexual pleasure.
  30. The Colosseum
    was a four-storied oval stadium in Rome which seated approximately 45,000 people, often home to bloody gladiatorial contests.
  31. Forum
    was a complex of important government, business, and religious buildings in Rome.
  32. Catacombs
    served as places of burial in ancient Rome, and were also used as hiding places for Christians fleeing persecution.
  33. Trebuchet
    operated like a giant seesaw. The short end was heavily weighted down with stones. When released, the long end fired a variety of unpleasant things such as huge stones, fire, or a burning mixture of chemicals, pitch, and sulfur.
  34. Republic
    is a form of government rightly called ‘by the people, for the people’ because all citizens are represented through the election process.
  35. Primary Sources
    are actual records that have survived from the past, such as letters, photographs, articles of clothing, and eyewitness accounts.
  36. Secondary Sources are composed of analysis, commentary, and interpretation of direct evidence from a past event or period.
  37. The Middle Ages occurred approximately between ______and ______.
    500 AD and 1500 AD
  38. The ancient Roman Empire occurred approximately between ______ and ______
    500 BC and 500 AD
  39. The European Renaissance occurred approximately between _____ and ______.
    1300 AD and 1600 AD
  40. Relate at least three details from the mythical tale of Rome’s founding (beginning).
    • Two boys named Romulus and Remus were cared for by a wolf and a shepherd.
    • They fought against each other for power.
    • Romulus killed his brother and went on to build Rome.
  41. Which general earned long-lasting fame for boldly directing his army – including a division of trained war elephants – through the Alps? What was the general’s purpose, and what was the outcome of this surprising maneuver?
    • Hannibal was a legendary Carthaginian general.
    • He hoped to destroy Rome by sneaking into Italy from the west.
    • He destroyed many Italian towns but was never able to defeat Rome itself.
  42. Recount the life of any single emperor, including at least five or more facts.
    • Nero was a particularly significant emperor.
    • He is regarded by historians as insanely violent.
    • He is suspected of setting fire to Rome – but blamed the Christians.
    • Some believe that he used Christians as torches.
    • He was very vain (full of himself).
    • He obsessed about plays and forced others to view his performances.
  43. Discuss the frustrating disadvantages and limitations faced by serfs living within the feudal system. Why might someone describe their situation as hopeless?
    • They could never hope to work their way up.
    • They were taxed heavily.
    • They were illiterate.
    • They had no freedom of movement.
  44. Which individual first used this emotional phrase? What was meant by it?
    • Pope Urban II first used this phrase in 1095.
    • He urged all Christians to take part in the Crusades, promising eternal life if they died in battle.
  45. Critical historians have suggested that the crusaders were compelled by motives other than “God’s command.” Identify at least three other possible motives behind the crusades.
    • Gain wealth
    • Gain lands and power
    • Gain freedom or status
  46. Describe the spirit and attitude associated with the Renaissance.
    • REBIRTH of interest in art, literature, religion, science, music, etc.
    • QUESTIONING the status quo (do things have to be this way?)
  47. Identify five or more ideas or practices of the medieval Catholic Church that Martin Luther actively opposed. Show at least one result of his bold fight for truth that can still be seen today.
    • Sale of relics (lucky charms like bones, nails, etc.)
    • Sale of indulgences (get-out-of-purgatory cards)
    • Corruption of priests
    • Pope’s authority over scripture
    • The Bible: only in Latin
  48. Discuss the significance and importance of the Roman Empire, listing at least six lasting achievements that continue to influence modern society.
    • Calendar (days of the week, names of months)
    • Democracy/Republic (every person can vote)
    • Technology (roads, sewage, piping, aqueducts)
    • Literature & Language (Latin has formed many of our words and letters)
    • Art (statues, jewelry, rings, etc.)
    • Architecture (arches, domes, etc.)
    • Medicine (knowledge of anatomy)
  49. Summarize the deadly wake of the Bubonic Plague in Europe during the Middle Ages, including descriptions of the physical effects of the plague (1), theories held by Europeans as to what caused it (2), their responses (2), and its actual causes (1).
    • Effects: hemorrhaging blood, vomiting, coughing, boils, rapid death
    • Theories about the cause: a) the Jews poisoned the wells, b) God’s wrath on the people
    • Responses: self-mutilation/flagellation, burning incense, mass graves, persecution of Jews, removal of the ‘sinners’ from the towns
    • (Actual) Causes: spread by fleas and rats (aided by poor hygiene), highly contagious
  50. In many ways, the spirit and interests of Leonardo da Vinci symbolized the whole direction of the European Renaissance. Discuss the importance of his life, listing at least ten of his interests (10) and at least two lasting accomplishments (2).
    • Affairs with men & women
    • Nature
    • Sketching
    • Math
    • Science
    • Engineering
    • Anatomy
    • Painting
    • Beauty
    • Sculpture
    • Military
    • Architecture
    • Mona Lisa and The Last Supper or the Vitruvian Man
  51. What was life like in the Middle Ages? In the following paragraph, list at least ten facts in order to provide as thorough a description as possible. You may choose to refer to any number of the following themes: art and music, city life, health and medical practices, literature, minorities, peasants, recreation, science, and women.
    • ART and MUSIC: troubadours were travelling French singers; themes were love, religion, and war
    • HEALTH & CITIES: cities were dirty, very poor hygiene, improper sewage (body waste ran in streets), improper garbage collection
    • LITERATURE: most commoners were illiterate (themes: war, chivalry, religion)
    • MINORITIES: Jews were often persecuted and ostracized (excluded)
    • PEASANTS: living conditions were harsh; no/little hope for a better life; illiteracy
    • Wealthy: tournaments, jousting, hawking, hunting (wild boars, foxes, etc.)
    • Poor: feast of fools, plays, (illegal hunting)
    • SCIENCE: alchemy (attempts to turn metals into gold), Roger Bacon (notably alchemist)
    • WOMEN: married at a young age, often abused by husbands, hard life
  52. If you were allowed to travel back in time, in which of the three periods (Ancient Rome, the Middle Ages, or the European Renaissance) would you choose to live? In what role or position? Why?
    “If I was allowed to travel back in time, I would choose to visit Ancient Rome around the time of Marcus Aurelius. I would choose to be a gladiator with unbelievable strength and blinding speed. I would win great fame and later become Caesar, bringing fairness and justice to all Romans.”
  53. List ten examples of primary evidence that investigators could use from the historical record to construct your personal profile.
    • Clothing
    • Criminal record
    • Diaries
    • Email
    • Facebook/blogs
    • Fingerprints
    • Hair
    • iPod
    • Legal documents
    • Music
    • Passport
    • Pictures/albums
    • Report cards
    • School work
    • Videos online/vlogs
  54. List five themes and values that were associated with chivalry and knighthood.
    • Courage
    • Loyalty
    • Purity
    • Honesty
    • Courtesy
    • Politeness
    • Compassion
    • Helpfulness
  55. List two significant legal/political changes that came to Europe following the signing of the Magna Carta, signed by King John.
    • Kings were not above the law.
    • Nobles were entitled to a fair trial by jury.
  56. Citizens:
    Roman-born men who were allowed to vote
  57. Consuls:
    chief magistrates of the ancient Roman republic, appointed for one year
  58. Bacon:
    noted English scientist (alchemist) and philosopher of the Middle Ages
  59. Chaucer: English poet and writer of medieval England; author of The Canterbury Tales
  60. Gutenberg:
    German printer who is considered the inventor of moveable type
  61. Vikings:
    Scandinavian pirates who plundered the coasts of Europe from the 8th to 10th centuries.
  62. SIMILARITIES of Hannibal and Julius Caesar
    • They were both great military leaders
    • They had ambitions for world conquest
    • Died in humble fashions
  63. DIFFERENCES of Hannibal and Julius Caesar
    • HANNIBAL attempted an ‘extreme invasion;’ CAESAR did not
    • HANNIBAL committed suicide; CAESAR was assassinated
    • HANNIBAL was Carthaginian; CAESAR was Roman
  64. Contrast the rates of scientific progress between Europeans and Arabs during the Middle Ages, explaining how/why each society trended in the direction they did.
    • ARABS rediscovered classic works (by Greeks and Romans) and advanced;
    • EUROPEANS fell back to knowledge levels similar to 200 A.D.
  65. Describe the uneasy relationship between the church and state during the Middle Ages. How did each one help the other?
    • The church offered the state … God’s “official” blessing and support
    • The state offered the church … political power and military protection
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