WHAP-Unit 2, Chapter Four Terms

  1. Ahura Mazda
    In Zoroastrianism, the good god who rules the world.
  2. Alexander the Greate
    Alexander III of Macedon, conqueror of the Persian Empire and part of northwest India.
  3. Aryans
    Indo-European pastoralists who moved into India about the time of the collapse of the Indus Valley civilization; their role in causing this collapse is still debated by historians.
  4. Ashoka
    The most famous ruler of the Mauryan Empire, who converted to Buddhism and tried to rule peacefully and with tolerance
  5. Athenian democracy
    A radical form of direct democracy in which much of the free male population of Athens had the franchise and office holders were chose by lot.
  6. Caesar Augustus
    The great-nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar who emerged as sole ruler of the Roman state at the end of an extended period of civil war.
  7. ??rus (the Great)
    Founder of the Persian Empire; a ruler noted for his conquests, religious tolerance, and political moderation.
  8. Darius I
    Great king of Persia following the upheavals after Cyrus's death; completed the establishment of the Persian Empire.
  9. Greco-Persian Wars
    Two major Persian invasions of Greece, in which the Persians were defeated on both land and sea.
  10. Gupta Empire
    An empire of India
  11. Han Dynasty
    Dynasty that ruled China, creating a durable state based on Shihuangdi's state building achievement.
  12. Hellenistic era
    The period in which Greek culture spread widely in Eurasia in the kingdoms ruled by Alexander's political successors.
  13. Herodotus
    Greek historian known as the "father of history".  His Histories enunciaated the Greek view of a fundamental divide between East and West, culminating in the Greco-Persian Wars.
  14. hoplite
    A heavily armed Greek infantryman.  Over time, the ability to afford a hoplite panoply and to fight for the city came to define Greek citizenship.
  15. Ionia
    The territory of Greek settlements on the coast of Anatolia; the main bone of contention between the Greeks and the Persian Empire.
  16. Mandate of Heaven
    The ideological underpinning of Chinese emperors, this was the belief that a ruler held authority by command of divine force as long as he ruled morally and benevolently.
  17. Battle of Marathon
    Athenian victory over a Persian invasion
  18. Mauryan Empire
    A major empire that encompassed most of India.
  19. Olympic Games
    Greek religious festival and athletic competition in honor of Zeus; celebrated every four years.
  20. patricians
    Wealthy, privileged Romans who dominated early Roman society.
  21. pax Romana
    The "Roman peace," a term typically used to denote the stability and prosperity of the early Roman Empire, especially in the first and second centuries.
  22. Peloponnesian War
    Great war between Athens (and allies) and Sparta (and allies) .  The conflict ended in the defeat of athens and the closing of Athens's Golden Age.
  23. Persepolis
    The capital and greatest palace-city of the Persian Empire, destroyed by Alexander the Great.
  24. Persian Empire
    A major empire that expanded from the Iranian plateau to incorporate the Middle East from Egypt to India
  25. plebeians
    Poorer, less privileged Romans who gradually won a role in Roman politics.
  26. Punic Wars
    Three major wars between Rome and Carthage in North Africa, that culminated in Roman victory and control fo the western Mediterranean.
  27. Qin Dynasty
    A short-lived but highly influential Chinese dynasty that succeeded in reuniting China at the end of the Warring States period.
  28. Qin Shihuangdi
    Literally "first emperor from the Qin; Shihuangdi forcibly reunited China and established a strong and repressive state.
  29. Solon
    Athenian statesman and lawmaker whose reforms led the Athenians toward democracy.
  30. Wudi
    Han emperor who began the Chinese civil service system by establishing an academy to train imperial bureaucrats.
  31. Xiongnu
    Nomadic peoples to the north of the Great Wall of China who were a frequent threat to the stability of the Chinese state.
  32. Yellow Turban Rebellion
    A major Chinese peasant revolt that helped cause the fall of the Han dynasty.
Card Set
WHAP-Unit 2, Chapter Four Terms
WHAP-Unit 2, Chapter Four Terms