APUSH STudy review 2-8

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  1. Bacon’s Rebellion
    Nathaniel Bacon leads a rebellion of indentured servants because of missing freedom dues (against VA’s governor William Berkeley, resented his friendly policies w/ Indians), attacked Indians and chased Berkeley from Jamestown, VA. Crushed by Berkeley after Bacon died from disease. Effects: planters started to look towards Africa for labor instead of indentured servants.
  2. Jamestown (28)
    Virginia Company attracted to bullion(gold and silver) Passage to New World, more for profit than actual colonization=low survival rate(sickness). Jamestown was the first successful colony: Virginia, agreed to have English citizenship Effects: England realized that they could solve their overpopulation problem, later had dissent for removal of rights
  3. George Whitefield
    Notable orator of The Great Awakening. Held revival meetings, converted many people which caused many imitators throughout the colony. Effects: helped continue a religious revival
  4. First GreatAwakening (96)
    1st major religious revival movement in America. Effects: direct, emotive spirituality-->undermined older clergy, increased number of churches/schisms in denominations, missionary work w/Indians/Black slaves, founding of colleges, more availability of secondary education
  5. Jonathan Edwards(96)
    Started Great Awakening: Northampton, MA. Proclaimed salvation through good works and dependence on God’s grace.
  6. William Pitt (theElder) (115)
    In 1757 became a foremost leader in the London government. Known as the “Great Commoner.” Concentrated French/Indian war in the Quebec-Montreal area. Chose young leaders which led to victory in the French/Indian War.
  7. Treaty of Paris1763(120)
    Ended French & Indian War, ceded Canada to the British,Spain eliminated from Florida, Indians forced to negotiate exclusively with the British.
  8. Albany Congress1754 (114)
    1754, 7 of 13 colony delegates showed up. It was an attempt to unite the colonies and bolster defenses against French. Devised colonial home rule plan, but failed to agree on details
  9. Battle of Quebec (116)
    James Wolfe attacks Quebec French vs. British forces fought on the Plains of Abraham in the outskirts of Quebec. British risked and won. Effect: removed French as a power player within North America, freed up more land. Britain controls Canada at end of F+I War.
  10. Proclamation of1763 (121)
    London government issued this law that restricted colonists from going West of the Appalachian Mountains.The goal of this proclamation was to avoid conflict between the colonists and the Indians Effect: Many Americans were angered, proclamation is ignored = defiance of British authority
  11. Establishment ofcolonies
    • Virginia- Virginia CO (joint-stock company)child of tobacco
    • Maryland- Catholic Haven, 2nd plantation colony, Lord Baltimore, proprietorship Connecticut- proprietorship (owned by one person who received land from King)
    • New York- proprietorship (to King’s brother), some area Dutch (New Netherland)
    • New Jersey-Two noble proprietors received area from the Duke of York, and then one of them sold West NJ to Quakers. East NJ was similarly acquired by Quakers. The two parts were combined in a royal colony in 1702. Pennsylvania- State founded by William Penn, who was eager to establish a refuge for his Quaker brethren and experiment with liberal ideas in government as well as make a profit. Liberal proprietary regime, representative assembly,freedom of worship, and exportation of grain.
    • Georgia- Buffer colony formed by royal charter
    • Carolinas- granted to 8 of Charles II court favs, the Lord Proprietors ---------North Carolina: most early settlers were religious dissenters and poor whites fleeing aristocratic Virginia
    • Massachusetts- Puritans, John Winthrop, Bible Commonwealth, Massachusetts Bay Company
    • Rhode (Rogue's) Island: Founded by Roger Williams, who was banished from the Bay Colony, and established complete freedom of religion in R.I.(implications: no oaths regarding religious beliefs, no compulsory attendance at worship, no taxes to support a state church.) It began as a squatter colony but secured a charter from Parliament eventually.
    • Plymouth: Separatists secured rights to settle under Virginia Company in New World, but their Mayflower landed off the stony coast of New England. They ultimately settled on the shore of Plymouth Bay, becoming squatters. Drew up Mayflower Compact, an agreement to form a crude gov. and submit to the majority’s will under agreed regulations. Economic: fur, fish, lumber. Eventually merged with Bay Colony.
  12. Yorktown (160)
    The official end of the Revolution. General Cornwallis of the British army retreats to Yorktown. Admiral de Grasse of the French navy blockaded them while Washington and French troops laid siege to Yorktown by land. Cornwallis is forced to surrender his troops to Washington on October 19, 1781. Effects: The British decide that the war is too costly to fight and this allows the colonies to make a treaty ending the war in Paris.
  13. Thomas Paine (144)
    Common Sense (1776)--pamphlet/propaganda, called for a republic vs. the constitutional monarchy of Britain with King George III. Effects: helped publicize the revolution, gained popular support, revolution otherwise impossible
  14. Battle of Saratoga(155)
    Revolution’s turning point. General Burgoyne of the British army is defeated and surrendered his army to General Horatio Gates at Saratoga. Effects: The victory gains French military support. Very little manpower, but sent experienced officers and some troops.
  15. Bunker Hill (142)
    Beginning of the American Revolution, revolutionaries capture and hold Bunker Hill against British, revolutionaries retreat at the end (lack of gunpowder) Actually fought on Breed’s Hill Effects: King George finally has had enough and declares the colonies officially in rebellion. OFFICIAL START OF REVOLUTION
  16. Boston Tea Party(132)
    The radical group Sons of Liberty disguise themselves as Indians and board British East India Co. ships to break open 342 chests and dump the contents into the Boston harbor. Effect: Parliament responded to the Boston Tea Party by passing the “Intolerable Acts.”
  17. The Association (134)
    Created by the First Continental Congress in 1774 -- total boycott of all British goods.
  18. 1st Cont. Congress(134)
    (1774)Response to the Intolerable Acts. They were to meet in Philadelphia to consider ways of addressing colonial grievances. 12 of the 13 colonies that attended sent 55 men. Deliberated for 7 weeks.
  19. Declaratory Act 1766(128)
    This act reaffirmed Parliament’s right “to bind” the colonies “in all cases whatsoever.” Effect: Increased the tension between England and its American colonies.
  20. Lexington/Concord(135)
    April 1775, British troops were on their way to stored arms at Concord. Also to arrest Sam Adams and John Hancock, two key leaders of the patriot movement. intercepted by minutemen-->guerilla warfare against British as the British marched from Lexington to Concord. The unofficial start of the American Revolution.
  21. Intolerable Acts (133)
    Punishment/response to the Boston Tea Party. Directed toward Boston, Massachusetts. The most severe punishment was the Boston Port Act, which closed the Boston harbor until damages were paid and order could be re-established. Effect: Angered colonists.
  22. Townshend Acts(129)
    Passed in 1767. Put taxes on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea and legal/commercial documents. Effect: Angered colonists.
  23. Sugar Act 1764 (125)
    Raised tax revenues in the colonies for the crown. Increased taxes on foreign sugar from the West Indies. 1st act for tax Effect: After protest, taxes were lowered substantially. Angered the colonists.
  24. Quebec Act (133)
    The Quebec Act was passed in 1774. Gave Catholic French Canadians religious freedom and extended the boundaries of Quebec southward to the Ohio River. Effect: Had a wider range rather than just Massachusetts. Dangerous precedents in America against jury trials and assemblies, land speculators had land snatched from their grasp, shocked anti-Catholics because the extension of Roman Catholic jurisdiction southward which was once marked for Protestantism.
  25. Stamp Act 1765
    Effect: Colonists hated this law. The Stamp Act Congress assembled to draw up grievances. 9 colonies were present Eroded sectional suspicion, a step toward intercolonial unity. Severely affected lawyers and printers.
  26. Samuel Adams (131)
    2nd cousin of John Adams, Political agitator and organizer of rebellion. Helped organize the Boston Tea Party in response to the Stamp Act. Sent by Massachusetts to the First Continental Congress of 1774. He signed the Declaration of Independence and served in Congress until 1781. Organized the first Committee of Correspondence in Boston during 1772 and created propaganda with the Boston Massacre.
  27. Committees of Correspondence (130)
    Started with Samuel Adams in Massachusetts and his radical group known as the Sons of Liberty; after it had formed other settlements began setting up similar organizations.XXXXX sent letters to other groups in different cities in order to create a sense of revolution between radicals Effect: Promoted intercolonial unity and revolution. Gathered public support.
  28. Mercantilism (123-
    wealth in bullion / amount of gold in treasury = power, export > import
  29. Salutary Neglect(N/A)
    Condition in which Britain did not interfere with the colonies ( no enforcement of parliamentary laws) because they were so profitable. Effect: Colonists were used to governing themselves, disliked British meddling
  30. Proclamation of1763 (121)
    London government issued this law that restricted colonists from going West of the Appalachian Mountains.The goal of this proclamation was to avoid conflict between the colonists and the Indians Effect: Many Americans were angered, proclamation is ignored = defiance of British authority
  31. Triangular Trade (91)
    • New England:Rum↦Africa:Slave↦West Indies:Molasses
    • wanted:Molasses↦Wanted:Rum↦Wanted:Slaves
  32. Half Way Covenant(80)
    allowed children to but not “full communion” the unconverted children of existing members because harsh Puritan Church was losing followers Effects: governing board of society increased. Provided church with source of income.
  33. Middle Passage (71)
    Slave trade: Africa --> Americas. Extreme treatment of slaves, high death rate
  34. Indentured Servants(68)
    Europeans who paid for passage by unpaid labor. Initially received freedom dues, but later did not. As land decreased, freedom dues decreased. Headright System. Effects: dissent of the indentured servants, no future after working at landowners place
  35. Headright System(67)
    Virginia and Maryland gives 50 acres of land to whoever pays for the passage of an indentured servant Effects: created large tracts of land owned by one landowner, and bred discontent in indentured servants.
  36. Salem Witch Trials
    Accusations because of widening social divisions, captured/hung 19 accused women, crushed 1 (total of 20 deaths), 1693 - accusations banned by governor of Massachusetts.
  37. William Penn (60)
    Secured royal charter for Pennsylvania, part of Quakers, treated Indians well Effects: peaceful religiously tolerant colony, populous and prosperous.
  38. Roger Williams (48)
    Salem Minister, extreme Separatist, banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded Rhode Island. Built first Baptist Church Effects: created concept of absolute religious freedom.
  39. John Winthrop (46)
    Massachusetts Bay Colony’s 1st governor (19 years) based on religion “holy city”, board elected by freemen (General Court)-->”City on a Hill”(like London) Effects: freemen elected governor and assistants called the General Court
  40. Great PuritanMigration (46)
    1630s, ~70,000 left England. Only 20,000 came to New England. Not all Puritans.
  41. New EnglandConfederation (53)
    1643-44 Puritan colonies ( Massachusetts, Connecticut, Plymouth, and New Haven) banded together against inter-colonial disputes and potential enemies (Indians, French, Dutch) Effects: beginnings of colonial unity
  42. Dominion of NewEngland (55)
    England creates-->after NEConfed. Created to increase colonial defense, faster enforcement of English Navigation Laws. Leader of Dominion: Sir Edmund Andros Effects: Andros enforced heavy restrictions-->resentment from colonists. Enforcement of navigation laws---smuggling became increasingly common, honorable. Defying Britain was good.
  43. Peter Stuyvesant
    Last Dutch general in New Netherland, governor of New Netherland. Led military expedition of 1655 against Swedish intrusion on the Delaware. Was forced to surrender to the English; New Netherland renamed New York(Duke of York, Charles II’s brother)
  44. John Smith (29)
    Saved Jamestown, enforced strict guidelines. No work no food. Effects: shifted focus from profit gain to survival within the colony
  45. John Rolfe (30)
    Married to Pocahontas, eased conflict of Anglo-Powhatan relations. Effects: forestalled conflict between English and Indians, allowing for survival of colony. Introduced tobacco= economic savior of Virginia colony.
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APUSH STudy review 2-8
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