chapter 1-6

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  1. which characteristic do whales share with fish like sharks and tuna?
    streamlined body
  2. the pulley shape at the end of the astragalus is important evidence linking
    early whales to land artiodactyls
  3. the flu outbreak in 2009 was the result of re-assortment of nucleic acids in viruses from which animals?
    humans, swine and birds
  4. which scientist did NOT believe in evolution?
    Carl Linnaeus
  5. which of the following is not evidence for common descent in evolution?
    streamlined body of shark and killer whale
  6. which of the following could not be readily determined by examination of a collection of fossils of a particular species?
    whether or not the species is reproductively isolated from other species
  7. which of the following colonized land environments first?
    procaryotes (bacteria & archea)
  8. cladograms are based on
    • shared derived characteristics 
    • synapomorphies
    • divergent evolution
  9. an insertion or deletion mutation would produce the greatest change if it occurred
    at the beginning of a gene
  10. pseudogenes often occur as a result of
    duplicated genes
  11. which of the following situation would violate a condition for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
    animals choosing mates with desirable characteristics
  12. In the case of the elderflower orchids, the flower color of purple or yellow which
    occurs less frequently in a population will have a selective advantage because
    • the bees are not rewarded with
    • either flower color, so they alternate visits to flowers with different colors,
    • increasing the proportion of  visits to
    • the flower color that occurs less frequently.
  13. plato and aristotle theories
    species have fixed properties and the number of species is fixed
  14. christian theology
    all species were created individually by god
  15. theory of special creation
    • earth species created separetly
    • species do NOT change
    • earth and life are young
  16. descent with modification
    • All species diverge with common ancestors and differences among them accumulate over time
    • species evolve
    • earth and life are old
  17. carlos linnaeus
    • father of taxonomy
    • believed all species were created separtely
  18. principle of uniformitarianism
    • same process acted in the past as in the present
    • geological features can be understood by the present day process
    • suggested earth was old
  19. james hutton and charles lyell
    • earth 19th century geologists 
    • principle of uniformitarianism
  20. George Cuvier
    • field of paleontologist
    • different rock layers contained different groups of fossils
    • opposed to evolution, believed species disappeared due to catastrophic events and new forms migrate from somewhere else
  21. lamark
    promoted the idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics
  22. darwin
    natural selection (mechanism to bring evolutionary change)
  23. vestigial organs
    • have lost all or most of their functions
    • useless wings in kiwi bird
    • remnant of a hind lib in the boa
    • tailbones and goosebumps
  24. law of succession
    species are descended with modification from ancestors that lived in the same region
  25. transitional forms
    • species showing a mix of traits from the ancestral forms and later descendants
    • EX: archaeopteryx, feathered dinosaurs and ancestral whales
  26. homology
    adaptions among different populations of organisms with similar origins may not have the same function

    *structural, developmental and molecular homologies evidence for common ancestries
  27. pseudogenes
    arise when processed with mRNA are revered transcribed and inserted into the genome

    *biologists can estimate their age by counting the number of mutations
  28. geologic time scale
    chronology of earths history based on rock strata
  29. radiometic dating
    dating rock samples based on parent to daughter radioactive isotopes present
  30. phylogenic tree
    diagram showing evolutionary relationship among different population of organisms
  31. HIV
    • Human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS (1981)
    • closely related to SIV found in chimpanzees and monkeys

    *evolved separately at least 4 TIMES!
  32. HIV life cycle
    • 1)HIV virion invades the host cell by binding to 2 proteins on the cell's surface
    • 2)allows virion to spill its cell content
    • 3)HIV reverse transcriptase makes copy of its viral DNA
    • 4)inserts its DNA into the host cell
    • 5)host's RNA polymerase transcribes it into mRNA
    • 6)ribosomes transcribe mRNA into precursors proteins
    • 7)HIV's protease cleaves the precursors, yielding mature viral proteins
    • 8)new virons assemble in the host's cytoplasm and
    • 9)bud from the host cell's membrane
  33. immune response
    • dendritic cells 
    • ↳naive helper T cells 
    • ↳memory cells and effector cells
    • ↳B cells
    • ↳antibodies
  34. activated killer t-cells
    divide to produce memory and effector t-cells
  35. effector cells
    • help fight virus
    • ↳release signalling molecules (chemokines)
    • ↳stimulate B cells to mature into plasma cells to produce antibodies

    *can also stimulate macrophages
  36. macrophages
    INGEST infected cells
  37. regulatory t-cells
    keep the immune response under control
  38. acute phase
    • the host shows general symptoms of a viral infection
    • viral load spikes during acute phase
    • patients CD4-T cells counts fall during acute phase and recover some what
  39. chronic phase
    viral load falls as the host mobilizes an immune response, but it climbs up again during the AIDS phase
  40. 4 postulates of natural selection
    • individuals in a populations are variable
    • variations are passed from parents to offspring
    • some individuals are more successful at surviving and reproducing in each generation
    • individuals with favorable traits are the ones who survive to reproduce
  41. adaptions
    traits that give certain individuals an advantage over another; allow some individuals to survive and reproduce more than individuals without the adaption
  42. fitness
    ability of an individual to survive and reproduce

    *individuals that are able to survive and reproduce more show greater fitness and they pass more copies of their genes to the next generation
  43. natural selection
    • acts on individuals but affects population
    • acts on phenotypes but changes allele frequencies

    *increased depth of beak in finches produced by this process
  44. mechanisms to provide new traits
    • mutations
    • gene flow
    • recombination 
    • genetic drift
  45. loss of traits
    • eye cave dwellers
    • gut of tapeworm
    • tails in humans
  46. butler act
    • struck down by supreme court in 1968
    • prohibited public schools teachers from denying the biblical account of mans origin
  47. creation science
    first group in 1980 to try to include creationism in public schools
  48. intelligent design
    • proponent of irreducible complexity in certain adaptations 
    • argues that complexity and perfection in nature is possible only with guidance by a supreme designer
  49. young earth scientific creationist
    believes that all species were created in 6 days
  50. old earth progressive creationist
    believes that species originated from episodes of creation and extinction
  51. planarian
    only a cup of light sensitive cells that allow the direction of light source to be perceived
  52. chambered nautilus
    has a slit over a cup of light sensitive cells to focus image of distant object
  53. pylogeny
    • relationships of different groups of organisms represented in genealogical (phylogenic) tree
    • hypothesis of a group's pattern of evolution
  54. synapomorphy
    a shared trait that was modified (changed from an older ancestral state) in the most recent common ancestor

    *homologous traits; help identify monophyletic groups
  55. cladogram
    shows ancestral relations between organisms, to represent evolutionary tree of life
  56. outgroup
    • group of organisms that serves as a reference group for determination of the evolutionary relationship among three or more monophyletic groups of organisms
    • in a cladogram related taxons are compared to an outgroup (possess ancestral characters)
  57. analogous structures
    trait or an organ that appears similar in 2 unrelated organisms

    • *similarities due to convergent evolution NOT common ancestor
    • (crocodile and hippos have skulls in which the eyes sit on top)
  58. convergent evolution
    organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niche (role)
  59. homoplasies
    character shared by a set of species but not present in their common ancestor 

    *analogies and reversals
  60. parsimony
    the cladogram with the fewest number of character changes is chosen as the best one
  61. links to land mammals
    • Perissodactyls: odd toed hoofed animals (horse)
    • artiodactyls: even toed hoofed animals (cow)
    • astragalus: high ankle bone with a pulley shape at bothe end (in artiodactyls, NOT in perissodactyls)
  62. sines vs. lines
    sines: short retrotransposable element (DNA sequence) that insert themselves in a new location

    lines: long retotransposable element that insert themselves in a new location
  63. systematics
    naming and classifying of species
  64. monophyletic vs. paraphyletic
    mono: all taxons with common ancestry included

    para: ll taxons share a common ancestry but not all taxons derived from that common ancestor are included
  65. molecular clock
    technique use to estimate when divergence occurred for a certain taxa by analyzing molecular traits that change at a a steady rate

    *when no fossil records are available
  66. phylogeography
    study of historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals

    *consider the geographic distribution of individuals in light of patterns associated with a gene genealogy
  67. coevolution
    • change in the genetic composition of one species in response to a genetic change in another 
    • symbiotic relationship and predatory/prey relations can result 

    *malaria in humans, aphids and bacteria
  68. mutation
    • any change in the nucleotide base sequence of DNA
    • ultimate source of new alleles and new genes
    • result from errors during DNA copying
  69. POINT mutation
    substitution of one base for another

    • *chance errors during DNA synthesis or during repair of damaged DNA
    • *create NEW alleles
  70. replacement substitutions
    results in the replacement of the amino acid being coded
  71. silent substitutions
    no change in amino acids sequence of a protein (loss of function mutation)
  72. frameshift mutation
    • insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a DNA sequence 
    • disrupts the reading frame of the protein and results in a non functional protein 

    *loss of function
  73. gene duplication
    • duplication of short stretch of DNA, creating and extra copy in the sequence 
    • unequal cross over during meiosis or retrotransposition 
    • redundant new genes may acquire new functions by mutations
  74. unequal cross over
    • most common type of gene duplication
    • occurs during meiosis 1 and results in one chromosome acquiring an extra copy of some regions of the DNA
  75. paralogous genes
    duplicated genes that diverge in their nucleotide sequence within a species

    • *alpha(3) and beta(5) globin genes in human
    • *homologous genes that have evolved by duplication and code for protein with similar, but not identical functions
  76. orthologous genes
    duplicated genes that diverge in their nucleotides sequence in a different lineage after speciation

    • *beta globin genes in humans and mice
    • *related by vertical descent from a common ancestor and encode proteins with the same function in different species
  77. inversions
    • duplicated chromosome breaks free, flips and is reinserted 
    • breaks in DNA caused by radiation or other insults
    • alleles inside the inversion are likely to be transmitted together
  78. polyploid
    • organisms that have more than two chromosome sets 
    • typically occur due to meiotic errors that result in diploid gametes
    • *most common in plants
  79. genome duplication
    • addition of a complete set of chromosomes
    • errors in meiosis (plants) or mitosis
    • may create new species; massive gene duplication
  80. how do we measure genetic variation in population
    examine variations in proteins or DNA
  81. allele frequency
    measure of how common one allele is relative to all other alleles of the same gene in a population
  82. wallace
    originated the science of biogeography
  83. evolution
    change in the gene pool of population over time
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