Clinical Pathology I - Week 4

  1. what are the two types of anemia?
    • 1. regenerative of non-regenerative
    • 2. chronic or acute
  2. what are the three major causes of blood loss anemia?
    • 1. chronic bleeding (over 72 hours)
    • 2. blood sucking parasites
    • 3. acute blood loss
  3. what are the five major categories that attribute to chronic bleeding?
    • 1. gastrointestinal lesions
    • 2. neoplasms outside GI tract
    • 3. deficiencies of clotting factors
    • 4. hemophilia
    • 5. DIC
  4. what are the two types of gastrointestinal lesions?
    • neoplasms
    • ulcers
  5. how does neoplasms cause slow blood loss?
    abdominal tumor (benign or cancer) growth that causes slight tearing thereby inducing the seepage of blood into the digestive tract
  6. what are examples of gastrointestinal lesions?
    abrasion or tumor
  7. what is the most common cause for abdominal abrasions?
    foreign bodies
  8. which clotting factor deficiencies can cause chronic bleeding?
    prothrombin or Vitamin K
  9. what is the cause of Vitamin K deficiency?
    poor diet
  10. what is the cause of prothrombin deficiency?
  11. what is hemophilia?
    lack of clotting ability
  12. which species is common for hemophilia?
    • dogs
    • foals
  13. what is the cause of hemophilia?
    inherited sex-linked disorder
  14. which sex is more likely to have hemophilia?
  15. why do females not seem to contract hemophilia?
    females are carriers; both parents must have the recessive gene on the "X" chromosome to pass on to the offspring
  16. what is a phenotype?
    the outwardly display of genetics - example: brown hair, blue eyes, etc.
  17. what is a genotype?
    what the genes actually are regardless of outward appearance - example: brown eyed female may actually carry the blue eyed recessive gene
  18. what is DIC?
    disseminated intravascular coagulation
  19. what is a major cause of DIC?
  20. what is thrombocytopenia?
    lack of available platelets; platelets are being used in the body and are not available for circulation
  21. what are the two functions of thrombocytes?
    • 1. carry clotting factors
    • 2. accumulate and act like sand bags to plug up tears in the blood vessels
  22. what is the common name for thrombocytes?
  23. what are three causes for DIC?
    • 1. heart worms or the treatment for heartworms
    • 2. heat stroke
    • 3. orthopedic surgery
  24. how do you determine DIC?
    blood smear
  25. what is the formula for calculating an average platelet count?
    sum of number of platelets in 10 fields divided by 10 times 20,000
  26. what is the average number of platelets per field?
  27. what is the normal platelet count for canine?
    150,000 - 600,000
  28. what is the normal platelet count for feline?
    200,000 - 800,000
  29. how can heartworms cause DIC?
    during surgery, anesthesia puts heartworms to sleep and are subsequently released from the heart and can cause an embolism
  30. what is an example of induced DIC?
    female cat comes in for OVH but has been in a recent fight; the platelets are concentrating on the wounds making sure to stop the bleeding; after the OVH another "wound" is present but the platelets are already preoccupied and there are insufficient platelets in circulation to congregate around the surgery site
  31. what are the three types of blood sucking parasites?
    • 1. internal
    • 2. external
    • 3. coccidia
  32. what are examples of internal parasites that can cause anemia?
    hookworms & some flukes
  33. what are examples of external parasites that can cause anemia?
    fleas, ticks, biting lice
  34. what is the scientific name for coccidia?
    Isospora canis/felis
  35. how do you diagnose coccidia?
    direct smear
  36. what are the two major sources for acute bleeding?
    surgery and trauma
  37. what are some examples of trauma causing acute bleeding?
    • 1. HBC/HBT
    • 2. fights
    • 3. too close to equipment (lawn mower, weed eater, etc.)
    • 4. fences
  38. what causes bleeding from every orifice in cows?
    bracken fern toxicity
  39. how does bracken fern toxicity cause bleeding?
    contains a strong anticoagulant
  40. what releases dicoumoral?
    sweet clover when trampled or freezes
  41. which species is affect by sweet clover poisoning?
  42. what is dicurmin?
    rat poison
  43. which species is usually affected by dicurmin?
    • rats - duh!
    • dogs and cats
Card Set
Clinical Pathology I - Week 4
Clinical Pathology I - Dr. Moore