A&P Lab Exam #1 Review

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  1. Lab 1
    Language of Anatomy
  2. Anatomical Position
    The human body is erect, with the feet only slightly apart, head and toes pointed forward, and arms hanging at the sides with palms facing forward.
  3. Axial
    Relating to head, neck, and trunk, the axis of the body
  4. Appendicular
    Relating to the limbs and their attachments to the axis
  5. Anterior/Ventral (Figure 1.1)
    Image Upload 1
  6. Posterior/Dorsal (Figure 1.1)
    Image Upload 2
  7. Abdominal
    Anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
  8. Acromial
    Point of the shoulder
  9. Antebrachial
  10. Antecubital
    Anterior surface of the elbow
  11. Axillary
  12. Brachial
  13. Buccal
  14. Carplal
  15. Cephalic
  16. Cervical
    Neck region
  17. Coxal
  18. Crural
  19. Digital
    Fingers or toes
  20. Femoral
  21. Fibular (peroneal)
    Side of the leg
  22. Frontal
  23. Hallux
    Great toe
  24. Inguinal
    Groin area
  25. Mammary
    Breast region
  26. Manus
  27. Mental
  28. Nasal
  29. Oral
  30. Orbital
    Bony eye socket (orbit)
  31. Palmar
    Palm of the hand
  32. Patellar
    Anterior Knee (kneecap) region
  33. Pedal
  34. Pelvic
    Pelvis region
  35. Pollex
  36. Pubic
    Genital region
  37. Sternal
    Region of the breastbone
  38. Tarsal
  39. Thoracic
  40. Umbilical
  41. Acromial
    Point of the shoulder
  42. Brachial
  43. Calcaneal
    Heel of the foot
  44. Cephalic
  45. Dorsum
  46. Femoral
  47. Gluteal
  48. Lumbar
    Area of the back between the ribs and hips; the loin
  49. Manus
  50. Occipital
    Posterior aspect of the head or base of the skull
  51. Olecranal
    Posterior aspect of the elbow
  52. Otic
  53. Pedal
  54. Perineal
    Region between the anus and external genitalia
  55. Plantar
    Sole of the foot
  56. Popliteal
    Back of the knee
  57. Sacral
    Region between the hips (overlying the sacrum)
  58. Scapular
    Scapula or shoulder blade area
  59. Sural
    Calf or posterior surface of the leg
  60. Vertebral
    Area of the spinal column
  61. Superior
  62. Inferior
  63. Anterior
  64. Posterior
  65. Medial
    Toward the midline
  66. Lateral
    Away from the midline
  67. Cephalad (cranial)
    Toward the head
  68. Caudal
    Toward the tail
  69. Dorsal
  70. Ventral
    Belly side
  71. Proximal
    Nearer the trunk or attached end
  72. Distal
    Farther from the trunk or point of attachment
  73. Superficial (external)
    Toward or at the body surface
  74. Deep (internal)
    Away from the body surface
  75. Sagittal Plane
    runs longitudinally and divides the body into right and left parts
  76. Frontal Plane (Coronal Plane)
    a longitudinal plane that divides the body (or an organ) into anterior and posterior parts
  77. Transverse Plane (cross section)
    runs horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
  78. Dorsal Body Cavity
    • Cranial Cavity
    • Vertebral (or spinal Cavity
  79. Ventral Body Cavity
    • Thoracic Cavity
    • Abdominopelvic Cavity
    • -abdominal Cavity
    • -Pelvic Cavity
  80. Cranial Cavity
    contains the brain
  81. Vertebral (or spinal) Cavity
    contains the spinal cord
  82. Thoracic Cavity
    contains heart and lungs
  83. Abdominopelvic Cavity
    contains the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
  84. Abdominal Cavity
    contains digestive visera
  85. Pelvic Cavity
    contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum
  86. Serosa (serous membrane)
    The moist membrane found in closed ventral body cavities
  87. Parietal Serosa
    The part of the double-layered membrane that lines the walls of the ventral body cavity.
  88. Visceral serosa
    covering the external surface of the organs within the cavity.
  89. Peritoneum
    The serosa lining the abdominal cavity and covering its organs
  90. Pleura
    The serosa enclosing the lungs
  91. Pericardium
    The serosa around the heart
  92. Umbilical Region
    The centermost region which includes the umbilicus (navel)
  93. Epigastric Region
    Immediately superior to the umbilical region; overlies most of the stomach
  94. Hypogastric (pubic) region
    Immediately inferior to the umbilical region; encompasses the pubic area
  95. Iliac, or inguinal, regions
    Lateral to the Hypogastric regions and overlying the superior parts of the hip bones (Right/Left).
  96. Lumbar Regions
    Between the ribs and the flaring portions of the hipbones; lateral to the umbilical region (right/left)
  97. Hypochondriac Regions
    Flanking the Epigastric region laterally, and overlying the lower ribs (right/left).
  98. Hand-out Lab
  99. Macromolecules
    Large, complex molecules containing from 100 to over 10,000 amino acids

    -a very large molecule (as of a protein, nucleic acid, or rubber) built up from smaller chemical structures
  100. Carbohydrate
    Organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; includes starches, sugars, cellulose
  101. Monosaccharide
    Literally, one sugar; building block of carbohydrates; e.g., glucose
  102. Isomer
    One of two or more substances that has the same molecular formula but with its atoms arranged differently.
  103. Polymer
    A substance of high molecular weight with long, chain-like molecules consisting of many similar (repeated units.
  104. Monomer
    Molecule of any of a class of mostly organic compounds that can react with other molecules of the same or other compounds to form very large molecules (polymers).
  105. Disaccaharides
    Literally, double sugar; e.g., sucrose, lactose.
  106. Polysaccharide
    Literally, many sugars, a polymer of linked monosaccharides; e.g., starch, glycogen.
  107. Starch
    the storage carbohydrate formed by plants.
  108. Glycogen
    The storage carbohydrate of animal tissues, is stored primarily in skeletal muscle and liver cells.
  109. Carbohydrate function
    The major function of carbohydrates in the body is to provide a ready, easily used source of cellular fuel.
  110. Monosaccharides are:
    • Monomers of charbohydrates
    • -Glucose
    • -Fructose
    • -Galactose
    • -Deoxyribose
    • -Ribose
  111. Disaccharides:
    • Consist of two linked monosaccharides
    • -Sucrose: Glucose & Fructose
    • -Maltose: Glucose & Glucose
    • -Lactose: Galactose & Glucose
  112. Polysaccharides:
    • Long branching changes (polymers) of linked monosaccharides
    • -Glycogen
  113. Lipid
    Organic compound formed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; examples are fats and cholesterol
  114. Triglycerides
    Fats and oils composed of fatty acids and glycerol; are the body's most concentrated source of energy fuel; also known as neutral fats
  115. Fatty acids
    Linear changes of carbon and hydrogen atoms (hydrocarbon chains) with an organic acid group at one end. A constituent of fat.
  116. Glycerol
    A modified simple sugar (a sugar alcohol); a building block of fats.
  117. Phospholipid
    Modified lipid, contains phosphorus.
  118. Steroids
    Group of chemical substances including certain hormones and cholesterol; they are fat soluble and contain little oxygen.
  119. Triglycerides (Neutral Fats): location/function
    Fat deposits (in subcutaneous tissue and around organs) protect and insulate body organs, and are the major source of stored energy in the body.
  120. Phospholipids: location/function
    Chief components of cell membranes. Participate in the transport of lipids in plasma. Prevalent in nervous tissue.
  121. Triglyceride formation
    • Three fatty acid changes are bound to glycerol by dehydration synthesis
    • -Glycerol + 3 fatty acid changes + Triglyceride
  122. "Typical" structure of a phospholipid molecule
    • Two fatty acid chains and a phosphorus-containing group are attached to the glycerol backbone.
    • -Phosphorus-containing group (polar "head")+Glycerol backbone+2 fatty acid chains (nonpolar "tail")
  123. Simplified structure of a steroid
    Four interlocking hydrocarbon rings form a steroid
  124. Protein
    Complex substance containing carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen; composes 10-30% of cell mass.
  125. Amino Acid
    Organic compound containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; building block of protein.
  126. Peptide Bond
    Bond joining the amine group of one amino acid to the acid carboxyl group of a second amino acid with the loss of a water molecule
  127. Reagent tests
    For Proteins, Simple sugars, Starch, Lipids
  128. Biurets
    Proteins; blue to pinkish to purple (depending on polypeptide complexity)
  129. Benedicts
    Simple sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides); blue to (after heating!) green to yellow to orange to brick red, depending on how much sugar is in concentration... the more, the "redder"
  130. Amalase
    An enzime used in the benedicts testing.......
  131. IKI
    Starch; should have turned from amber-yellow to black; potato
  132. Bile Salts/Detergents
    Lipids; causes large fat/oil droplets to break apart (emulsificaiton) into smaller droplets
  133. What macromolecules studied today are present in cells?
    Possibly all; some more so than others, depending on type of cell (e.g., potato = starch, but no sugar; whereas onion = sugar but no starch)
  134. You have been assigned the task of constructing a protein. what type of building block would you use?
    Amino Acids
  135. A digestive enzyme such as amylase breads down starch to what disaccharide studied in the laboratory?
  136. Why is it necessary to shake an oil and vinegar salad dressing before adding it to a salad?
    To mix the oil into the water, albeit temporarily
  137. How would you test an unknown solution for sugars?
    Add Benedict's and heat
  138. How would you test an unknown solution for Fat?
    Is it soluble in water? on brown paper? with emulsifiers?
  139. How would you test an unknown solution for starch?
    Iodine (IKI) test
  140. How would you test an unknown solution for protein?
    Biuret's test
  141. Assume that you have tested an unknown sample with both biuret solution and Benedict's solution and that both tests result in a blue color.  What have you learned?
    Unknown contains no protein and no sugar.
  142. What purpose is served hen a test is done using water instead of a sample substance?
    Water serves as a control to compare other sample substances against.
  143. A test tube contains starch, hydrochloric acid, and water.  The biuret test is negative. Explain.
    No protein
  144. A test tube contains starch, hydrochloric acid, and water.  The biuret test is negative. Explain...No Protein ...After 30 minutes, the Benedict's test is positive. Explain.
    HCL Broke starch down into its sugar sub-units
  145. A test tube contains albumin and pepsin. The test for protein is positive. Explain.
    Both albumin and pepsin are proteins
  146. Although pepsin is an enzyme that breaks down protein, a test for peptides is negative. Explain.
    Pepsin itself a protein; if it was to breakdown other proteins into polypeptide sub-units, then perhaps not enough time, or heat, or stirring was allowed.
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A&P Lab Exam #1 Review
Based on the instructor exam review sheet
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