Anatomy Chapter 5&6

  1. What
    are the major functions of the integumentary system?
  2. What
    are the major functions of the integumentary system?
    Body temperature regulation
  3. What
    are the major functions of the integumentary system?
    Sensory Perceptions
  4. What
    are the major functions of the integumentary system?
    Synthesis of vitamin D
  5. What
    are the major functions of the integumentary system?
    Emotional expression
  6. What
    are the major functions of the integumentary system?
    Reservoir of blood
  7. What is keratinization?
    process of replacing viable cells in the stratum basale with more and more of the waxy keratin protein as cells move from the deepest layer to the surface layer
  8. Epidermis Cells
    Keratinocytes: makes up 90% of the cells. produce keratin (a tough fibrous protein that provides protection)
  9. Epidermis Cells
    Melanocytes: produce the pigment melanin that protects against damage by UV radiation
  10. Epidermis Cells
    Langerhans cells: macrophages that originated in the red bone marrow. They are involved in the immune responses
  11. Epidermis Cells
    Merkel cells: function in the sensations of touch alone with the other adjacent tactile discs (receptors)
  12. Layers of Epidermis
    • stratum basale: bottom
    • (deepest) layer. Continuous cell division occurs here and produces all the
    • other layers.
  13. Layers of Epidermis
    • stratum spinosum:8–10
    • keratinocytes
  14. Layers of Epidermis
    • The
    • non-dividing cells of the 3rd
    • layer (stratum granulosum) are
    • filled with granules of keratin.
  15. Layers of Epidermis
    • stratum lucidum:4th
    • layer but is only present in thick skin (the skin of the fingertips, palms, and
    • soles).
  16. Layers of Epidermis
    • stratum corneum: always
    • outermost, composed of approximately 20 layers of flat cell-remnants that are
    • like “bags of turtle wax” (dead keratinocytes with no cellular organelles
    • filled with only keratin protein.)
  17. DERMIS
    is composed of connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers.
    • papillary region: lies
    • just below the epidermis and consists of areolar connective tissue containing
    • thin collagen and elastic fibers, dermal papillae (including capillary loops),
    • corpuscles of touch and free nerve endings.
    • reticular region: consists
    • of dense
    • irregular connective tissue containing collagen and elastic fibers,
    • adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous (oil) glands, and sudoriferous
    • (sweat) glands
  20. Lines of cleavage
    • are “tension lines” in the
    • skin that indicate the predominant direction of underlying collagen fibers.
  21. epidermis
    • resists
    • damage and offers protection to underlying tissues.
  22. dermis
    • provides
    • temperature stability and prevents dehydration, and yet is capable of limited healing.
  23. These sensory receptors are found in different layers

    • •Merkel
    • discs, free nerve endings (detect many stimuli), Meissner
    • corpuscles, and hair root plexuses
  24. Deep
    • •Pacinian
    • corpuscles
  25. What are the major parts of the hair?
    The shaft (above the skin surface)

    The follicle (below the level of the skin)

    A root that penetrates into

      the dermis includes:

    •An epithelial root sheath

    •A dermal root sheath
  26. What is the function of hair?
    • Hair helps with touch sensations and protects the body against the harmful effects
    • of the sun and against heat loss.
  27. What are the major skin glands
    Sebaceous (oil) glands are connected to hair follicles.

    They secrete an oily substance called sebum which does 2 important things:

    •Prevents dehydration of hair and skin

    •Inhibits growth of certain bacteria
  28. What are the major skin glands
    • Eccrine sweat glands are the most numerous. They secrete a watery solution (600 ml per day) that helps
    • to cool the body and eliminates small amounts of waste.
  29. What are the major skin glands
    • Apocrine sweat glands are
    • located mainly in the skin of the axilla, groin, areolae, and bearded facial
    • regions of adult males. They secrete a slightly viscous sweat (Where body odor comes from)
  30. What are the major skin glands
    Ceruminous glands are modified sweat glands located in the ear canal.
  31. wound healing
    Epidermal wound healing occurs following superficial wounds that affect only the epidermis.

    Return to normal function is the rule
  32. Wound healing
    Deep wound healing occurs when an injury extends to the dermis and subcutaneous layer.

    Loss of some function and development of scar tissue is the rule.
  33. Epidermal Wound Healing
    Image Upload 1
  34. Deep Wound Healing
    Image Upload 2
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Anatomy Chapter 5&6
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