BIology100B Review #4 (Exam I)

  1. How do septate hypha differ from coenocytic hypha?
    • -Septate hypae have a septa(figure 22.3)
    • -coenocytic hapae arte multinucleated (no seperation)
  2. How do fungi feed? Do fungi contain chitin?
    • - by heterotrophy
    • -secrede exoenzymes
    • -saprobes
    • -mutalistic symbionts
    • -parasites
  3. Describe the general fungal life cycle. What stages are 2n, 1n, dikaryotic? Where does meiosis take place?
    • - Sporangium/spres are 1N
    • -Zygote are 2N
    • -Mycelium are n+n dikaryotic
  4. . What are some characteristics of the Chytridiomycota?
    • - freshwater and terrestrial
    • -saprobes or parasites
    • -flagellated spores
  5. What makes the Zygomycota unique?
    • -Karyogamy occurs and may go dormant
    • -when conditions are favorable,break dormancy, followed by meiosis
  6. What are the reproductive structures of the Ascomycota? Basidiomycota?
    • - Asci
    • -Basidium
  7. What are endomycorrhizae and ectomycorrhizae? How does this symbiosis benefit the fungus? the plant?
    • -ectomycorrhizae: the fungus wraps around the root, and its mass is often as great as that of the root itself.¬†
    • -¬†endomycorrhizae: fungi live within the above ground parts of the plant.¬†

    • -Fungus gains sugars and amino acids
    • -Plant recieves water and minerals.
  8. What are lichens?
    - Associations of a fungus with a cyanobacterium
  9. When did animals originate?
    -550 million years ago
  10. Describe three lines of evidence that choanoflagellates are closely related to animals
    • -Flagella
    • -Morphology
    • -Only organisms that have genes for signaling adhesion protiens
  11. What are some possible causesforthe Cambrian explosion & decline of Ediacarian biota?
    • -New predator/prey relationships
    • -Rise in atmoshperic oxygen
    • -Evolution of Hox gene complex
  12. What are the distinguishing characteristics of animals and four key features?
    • -Multicellular eukaryotes
    • -Lack cell walls
    • -Heterotrophic
  13. Contrast radial/bilateral symmetry.
    • Radial: No front and back or left and right
    • Bilateral: two sided symmetry with right and left, dorsal(top) and ventral (bottom)
  14. What are the embryonic tissues of animals?
    • -Ectoderm
    • -Endoderm
    • -Mesoderm
  15. Distinguish & give an example of an acoelomate, pseudocoelomate and coelomate animal
    • -Coelom = true body cavity (analid)
    • -Acoelomates = no body cavity (Platyhelminthes)
    • -Psuedocoelom = body cavity derived from blastocoel rahter than mesoderm (nematode)
  16. How do deuterostomes differ from protostomes?
    Plotosomes: Blastopore develops in to mouth

    Deuterostomes: Blastopore developes into the anus.
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BIology100B Review #4 (Exam I)
review #4