Orgo Ch 4.9-4.11

 .remove_background_ad { border: 1px solid #555555; padding: .75em; margin: .75em; background-color: #e7e7e7; } .rmbg_image { max-height: 80px; } Each reaction has its own characteristic __. Its value depends o the __, especially the __. This __ dependence is expressed by the __. rate constant, krconditions of the reactiontemptemp dependenceArrhenius equationkr=Ae-Ea/RT Explain the components of the Arrhenius equation? A= a constant (the "frequency factor")Ea= activation energyR= the gas constant (8.314 J/ Kelvin-mole)T= the absolute temp The __ is the minimum kinetic energy the molecules must have to overcome the repulsions between their electron clouds when they collide. The exponential term e^(-Ea/RT) corresponds to the __ in which the particles have the __ needed to react. activation energy, Eafraction of collisionsminimum energy, Ea The __ accounts for the frequency of collisions and the fraction of collisions with the proper orientation for the reaction to occur. In most cases, only a small fraction of collisions occur between molecuels with enough ___ and with just the __ for reactions to occur. Far more collisions occur without enough __ or without the __, adn the molecules simply bounce off each other. frequency factor Aspeedright orientationkinetic energyproper orientation The __ implies that the rate of the reaction depends on the __ with kintetic energy of at least Ea. Arrhenius equationfraction of collisiosn Because the __ increases quickly when the temp is raised, it might seem that raising the temp would be a good way to save time by making reactions go faster. What is the problem, however? relative rate constant (krel)allĀ reactions are accelerated, including all the unwanted side reactions (don't want that) The __ represents the energy differences between the __ and the __, the highest energy state in a molecular collision that leads to reaction. activation energy Eareactantstransition state In effect, __ is the barrier that must be overcome for the reaction to take place. The value of Ea is always __ and its magnitude depndds on the __ of the __. activation energypositiverelative energytransition state The term __ implies that this configuration is the __ between the reactants and the products, and the molecules can either go on to products or return to reactants. transition statetransition Unlike the reactants or products, a transition state is __ and cannot be __. It is not an __ because an __ is a species taht exists for some finite length of time, even if it very short. unstablecannot be isolatedintermediate x2 An __ has at least some stability, but the __ is a transient on the path from one __ to another. intermediatetransition stateintermediate Transition states have __ because bonds must begin to __ before other bonds can __. higher energiesbreakform vertical axis of a reaction energy diagram is __. horizontal axis? the total potential energy of all the species involved in the reactionreaction coordiate, which symbolizes the progress of the reaction, going from the reactants on the left to the products on the right highest point on the graph what is activation energy on the graph? transition stateenergy difference between reactants and the transition state If a __ were added to the reaction, it would create a __ of lower energy, thereby lowering the __ and increasing the __. Addition of a __ would not change the enthalpies of the reactants and products, however, so the heat o reaction adn the equilibrium constant would be unaffected. catalysttransition stateactivation energyreaction ratecatalyst Explain reactive intermediates? stable as long as they don't collide with other atoms or molecuels energy maxima and energy minima e max: high points; unstable transition statese min: low points; intermediates In a multistep reaction, each step has its own characteristic rate. There can only be one overall reaction rate, however, and it is controlled by the __. rate limiting (or rate determining) step In general, the __ of a multistep reaction is the __ adn it determines the overall rate. highest-energy stepbottleneck .remove_background_ad { border: 1px solid #555555; padding: .75em; margin: .75em; background-color: #e7e7e7; } .rmbg_image { max-height: 80px; } AuthorDesLee26 ID238028 Card SetOrgo Ch 4.9-4.11 DescriptionPrice Updated2013-10-01T03:16:05Z Show Answers