1. Basic concepts of cell theory (4)
    • cells are the building blocks of all plants and animals
    • all cells come from the division of preexisting cells
    • cells are the smallest units that perform all vital physiological functions
    • each cell maintains homeostasis at the cellular level
  2. Two classes of cells
    • sex cells (sperm and oocytes)
    • somatic cells
  3. Functions of plasma membrane (4)
    • physical isolation
    • regulation of exchange with the environment
    • sensitivity to the environment
    • structural support
  4. the plasma membrane is also called
    the phospholipid bilayer
  5. what cannot cross directly through the lipid bilayer?
    • water
    • ions
  6. A 1:1 molar ration exists between what two molecules in the membrane?
    carbohydrates and phospholipids
  7. Integral proteins
    traverses all membranes going from outside to inside
  8. peripheral proteins
    remain on one side of cell
  9. 5 functional types of proteins
    • anchoring
    • recognition
    • receptor
    • carrier
    • channel
  10. Function of integral proteins
    • provide structural support
    • unify lipid bilayer with cytoskeleton
    • outnumber peripheral proteins
  11. peripheral proteins function
    • connect with integral proteins uniting the protein/phospholipid moity.
    • provide support and shape to cell
  12. anchoring protein function
    attach to cell membrane and stabilize cell position
  13. recognition protein function
    identify tissue as self or foreign, normal or abnormal
  14. receptor proteins function
    accept ligands that trigger changes int he acticity of a cell
  15. carrier proteins function
    • bind solute and in the process change shape carrying solute across membrane where it is released. teh carrier protein then returns to its original shape.
    • May require ATP
  16. channel proteins functions
    • permit the movement of water, ions and other small water solublue solutes
    • certain channels are highly selective
  17. Membrane lipids are
    • choline phospholipd
    • sphingomyelin
    • ceramide
    • aminophospholipids
    • cholesterol
  18. choline phospholipids (lecithins)
    are associated with regulating points of lipid exchange across the membrane and metabolism by the cell
  19. proteoglycans, glycolipds and glycoproteins are comprised of
    membrane carbohydrates
  20. function of the glyocalyx
    • lubrication and protection of membrane
    • anchoring cell in place and locomotion of specialized cells
    • specificity in binding-function as receptors
    • recognition of glycoprotein glycolipids as either normal or abnormal by cells of immune system
  21. Membrane transport processes are categorized by mechanism into 3 categories
    • diffusion: results from random motion and collision of ions. is a passive process
    • carrier-mediated transport (CMT): requires presence of specialized integral membrane proteins. can be active or passive. eg: Na+ transport(active); glucose transport (passive)
    • vesicular transport: involves the movement of material within membranous sacs.
  22. Tonicity refers to
    the concentration of the solute in solution
  23. Steps of Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
    • 1. ligands bind to receptors
    • 2. Endocytosis occurs
    • 3. fusion of membranous sac with primary lysosome in order to make secondary lysosome
    • 4. membrane with receptors detaches from seconday lysosome and ligands removed
    • 5. receptors and membrane returned to surface
  24. Transmembrane potential relates to
  25. transmembrane potential is the
    difference in electrical potential between inside and outside of a cell.
  26. donnan/gibbs equilibrium
    with a cell are non diffuse
  27. Apoptosis
    genetically controlled death of cells
  28. mitosis vs meiosis
    nuclear division of somatic cells vs production of sex cells
  29. What occurs during prophase
    • chromosomes condense
    • nuclear membrane disappears
    • centriols migrate to polar regions of cell
    • aster formation occurs
    • spindle begins to form
  30. what occurs during metaphase
    • spindle develops
    • chromosomes align along equatorial plane of spindle
  31. what occurs during anaphase
    division of centromere of centrosomes
  32. What is manufactured during the G1 phase
  33. DNA replication takes place during what phase?
    S phase
  34. what is an Okazaki fragment
    section of RNA and DNA nucleotide manufactured as part of lagging strand
  35. Laggin strand replication occurs in which direction
    C3 to C5
  36. leading strand replication occurs in which direction
    5' to 3'
  37. DNA polymerase I has what function
    synthesizes DNA in a C5 -> C3 Direction
  38. RNA primase has what funcction
    synthesizes start fragment on DNA called an RNA primer
  39. DNA polymerase II has what function
    cleans Okazaki fragment by remoivng RNA nucleotides or incorrect DNA nucleotides
  40. Ligase has what function?
    ties okazaki fragments together in a direction that follows helicase
  41. Transcription involves the production of
    RNA, mRNA and tRNA
  42. Ribosomes function
    protein synthesis (translation)
  43. the 3 phases of translation are
    • initiation
    • elongation
    • termination
  44. what is required to begin the process of translation
    mRNA Initiation Factors
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