chapter 8 social relations

  1. Male and Female sexuality
    what are female gametes like and what are they restricted by?
    • Produce larger, more energetically costly gametes.

    • Reproduction
    • thought to be limited by resource access
  2. Male and Female sexuality
    what are male gametes like and what are they limited by
    -Produce smaller, less energetically costly gametes

    -Reproduction limited by mate access
  3. Male and Female sexuality
    what are hermaphrodites and what are some of their benefits
    • •Hermaphrodites exhibit both male and female function.  Conditions that favor
    • hermaphroditic populations include:

    - Low mobility limiting male:male competition.

    - Low overlap in resource demands by male and female structures.

    -Sharing of costs for male and female function.
  4. Male and female sexuality
    describe the variable sexual expression and a benefit of it
    • •Variable sexual expression
    • (sequential hermaphrodites):  sexual expression is a function of
    • age and/or circumstance:

    • -
    • Females and small, sub-dominant males are yellow in color.

    -Dominant male of harem has a blue head

    -Females can convert to males when dominant male is killed.
  5. mate choice 
    what is sexual selection
    • Sexual Selection:  Differences in reproductive rates among individuals as a result of
    • differences in mating success.
  6. mate choice
    what are some criteria for choosing a mate
    Criteria for choosing a mate




  7. mate choice
    what kind of mates do female favor
    • Ryan
    • and Keddy-Hector
    • (1992) suggest that females prefer 
    • traits that deviate from the population mean.
  8. mate sexual selection in guppies
    what kind of guys do guppies want. whats the down side to that.
    • •Given a choice, female guppies will
    • mate with brightly colored males.

    • Brightly colored males attract
    • predators
  9. Social relations
    • •Territoriality: Defending resources
    • against outside competitors
  10. Social relations
    evolution of society is accompanied by what
    •Evolution of sociality is accompanied by:

      -  Cooperative feeding

      -  Defense of the social group.

      -  Restricted reproductive opportunities
  11. Social relations
    • •Eusociality: 
    • More complex level of sociality.

    •   -  Individuals of more than one generation
    • living together.

      -  Cooperative care of young.

    •   -  Division of individuals into non-reproductive
    • and   reproductive castes.
  12. Kin selection
    what is inclusive fitness
    • Inclusive
    • fitness:  increase in group fitness more than
    • compensates for the loss of individual fitness.
  13. Kin selection
    what does inclusive fitness assume
    • •Assumes  altruism,
    • which is a behavior that may reduce the
    • fitness of an individual but increase the fitness of other individuals in the
    • population.
  14. Kin selection
    what does altruism improve
    • •Improve survival and reproductive rates of
    • family members.
  15. kin selection
    what perks are possible for altruism
    • Cooperation may also increase the probability
    • of survival and fitness
    • of the “helper” or cooperator
  16. kin selection
    describe hamilton's rule
    • Hamilton’s
    • Rule: 

    Rg x B – C > 0


    • Rg = Genetic relatedness of the helper
    • and recipient of help, 

    • B is the reproductive gain of the
    • recipient of help

    • C = reproductive cost associated
    • with helping

    • If the reproductive gain of the
    • recipient (b) is greater than the cost of
    • helping (c), then altruism will increase with
    • degree of relatedness

    • As soon as c
    • becomes equivalent to b, 
    • altruism declines even in groups of related individuals.
  17. territoriality
    what is territoriality and when does it happen
    • If the reproductive gain of the
    • recipient (b) is greater than the cost of
    • helping (c), then altruism will increase with
    • degree of relatedness

    • As soon as c
    • becomes equivalent to b, 
    • altruism declines even in groups of related individuals.
  18. territoriality
    what does territory defense increase
    • Territory defense increases
    • resource availability
  19. territoriality
    when does territorial defense become a waste
    • Gill and Wolf (1981) found that
    • territorial defense becomes a waste of energy as resource levels increase.
  20. Mating systems
    • Monogamy: 
    • equal numbers of individual males and females mate
  21. Mating systems
    • Polygyny: 
    • More individual females mate than individual males
  22. Mating systems
    • More
    • individual males mate than individual females
  23. Mating systems
    when do cooperative systems evolve
    • Cooperative
    • systems may evolve when poor habitat quality fosters cooperation
  24. mating systems
    what causes more adults to care for young and acquire food
    Reduced food resources require more adults to care for young and acquire food
  25. mating systems
    what results in grouped reproduction
    • •Reduced nesting habitat results in
    • grouped reproduction.
  26. mating systems
    what requires cooperative defense
    High predation requires cooperative defense
  27. cooperative breeders
    what do species that live in groups often do
    • Species living in groups often
    • cooperate in rearing offspring.
  28. cooperative breeders
    inherited territory may increase what
    • •Inherited territory: May increase
    • helper’s probability of future reproduction and recruiting helpers.
  29. cooperative breeders
    how many female lions are in a group
    • •Prides of female lions include 3-6 adults, but may contain as many as
    • 18.
  30. cooperative breeders
    what do female lion groups do together
    •Substantial cooperation in hunting, rearing of young.
  31. cooperative breeders
    what do male lions cooperate in
    • Males
    • cooperate in territory defense
  32. Schooling/flocking/herding

    what can living in a group provide
    •Living in a group can provide:

      -  Cooperative feeding

      -  Defense in numbers.

      -  Reproductive opportunities.
  33. eusocial species
    what are eusocial species like
    • Have a social caste system where individuals conduct different activities that are
    • vital to the survival of the colony.
  34. eusocial species
    for ants
    •Queen: Reproduction

    • •Gardeners: Tending fungus garden
    • that feeds the colony. 

    •Harvesters:  Leaf cutting and transport to the nest.

    • •Soldiers:  Defense of the colony and leaf
    • cutting/transport  activities.
  35. eusocial species
  36. eusocial species
Card Set
chapter 8 social relations
chapter 8 social relations