- Infants double their birth weight by the 4th month and triple by their 1st bday.
- By 24 months, weight is about 30 lbs.
- Height is 32"-36"
An average or standard of physical development that is derived for a specific group or population.
A number that is midway between 0 and 100. With half the children above and the other half below.
When does Head Sparing occur?
- When nutrition is temporarily inadequate, the body stops growing but not the brain.
- Infant sleeps around 17 hrs a day.
Rapid eye movement sleep
A stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behing closed lids, dreaming and rapid brain waves.
The degree of awareness an infant display to both internal and external stimulation.
Sleep patterns can be affected by...
- Birth order
- Child-raring practices
- Brain maturation
Sudden Infant Death Syndrom (SIDS)
- Death of a seemingly healthy baby who w/o apparent cause stops breathing during sleep.
- Happens from sleeping on stomach, low APGAR score, poverty, boys, overheated rooms.
Provides a rough idea of how the brain is growing, and that is why medical check ups include measurement of skull.
Basic nerve cells of the nervous system that stores and sends info to other cells.
The oute layers of the brain where most thinking, feeling, and sensing take place.
Sending portion of neuron that carries info to other cells
Sending portion of neuron that collects info and routes it to cell body
The intersection between the axon of one neurons and dendrite of another.
When does prefrontal cortex mature?
- In our 20s.
- It's also the last part of brain to mature.
The inborn drive to correct a develpmental deficit.
- The first stage.
- All senses function at birth.
- Sensation is the response of a sensory system...when it detects a stimulus.
- The physical stimulation of the sense organs
- Early sensation has 2 goals- social interaction and comfort.
The mental processing of sensory info,when the brain interprets a sensation.
Babys sense- hearing and sight
- Hearingis acute at birth.
- At birth, vision is the least mature.
The ability to use both eyes in a coordinated manner to focus on one image.
Respond to familar caregivers
To be soothed, amid the disturbances of infant life.
- The learned ability to move and control some part of the body.
- Refers to movement of muscles, the abilites needed to move and control the body.
- Are a responsive movement that seems automatic b/c it almost always occurs in reaction to a particular stimulus.
- Unlearned, voluntary, inborn.
- 3 survival reflexes:
- 2.Body temp
- 3. Feeding
Palmar Grasping Reflex
- Occurs when infants palms are touched.
- ex: stepping, sucking, and rooting reflex
A startled response to a sudden, intense noise or movement. the infant archs back, throws head back, & flings arms and legs.
Infant fans out its toes in response to a stroke on the outside of foot.
Gross Motor Skills
- Physical abilities involving large body movements. (gross=big)
- ex: walking, jumping
Three factors to walk
- 1.Muscle strength
- 2. Brain maturation within the motor cortex
- 3. Practices
Fine Motor Skills
- Physical abilities involving small body movements, especially of hands and feet. (fine=small)
- ex- drawing, picking up a coin
A process that stimulates the body's immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease
A condition in which a person does not consume sufficient food to thrive.
- A disease caused by severe protein deficiency during the 1st year of life.
- Growth stops, body tissues away and infant
A disease of chronic malnutrition during childhood which protein deficiency makes child more vulnerable to most diseases.
Information Processing Theory
An approach or model of cognitive theory that seeks to identify the way that individual takes in, uses and stores info
Process by which info is initially recorded in form usable to memory
Keeping info in one's memory
Process material in memory storage is located, brought into awareness and used
An opportunity for perception and interaction that is Offered by person, place, or object in environment.
Affordance depends on...
- 1.Past experiences
- 2. Current developmental level
- 3. Sensory awareness of opportunities
- 4. Immediate needs and motivation.
- Perception that is primed to focus on movement and change.
- 1st universal principles
- Type of infant affordance.
- Type of infant affordance.
- The ability to perceive where objects exist relative to each other is a 3-D world.
An apparatus to measure depth perception by giving an illusion of a sudden drop between one horizontal surface and another.
2nd universal principle
- Baby's rather look at people.
- "People Principle"
A process by which info is recorded (encoded), stored, and retrieved.
- Memory for routines and memories that remain hidden until particular stimulus bring to mind.
- ex- using key to open door.
- Memory can be recalled on demand.
- ex- test
- A system of communication that combines symbols in the rule-based ways to create meaning.
- Language is most impressive intelligent achievement of young child.
- Around the world children follow same sequence of early language development.
- Timing of acquisition varies.
- Infants learn language before birth.
Child- Directed Speech
The high- pitched, simplified and repetitive way adults to communicate.
- Extended reptition of certain syllables.
- First words- year 1
A single word that expresses a complete, meaningful thought.
All the methods that language use to communicate language.
1. Infants need to be taught
- Language follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning
2. Infants teach themselves
- A genetically determined innate mechanism directs language development
- Nom Chompsky
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
A hypothosized mental structure that enable humans to learn language, including basic aspects of gramm, vocab
3. Social Interactionist View
- Social impulses foster language development.
- The social reason for language is communication.
- 3 components:
- 1. Biological Arousal
- 2. Cognitive Component- awareness of feeling
- 3. Behavioral Component- display of feeling
Infants smile in response to a human face or voice. Normally evident at 6 weeks
The fear, caution, and weariness an infant displays when encountering unfamiliar people.
The fear infants display when leaving parents.
- An individual realization that he or she is a distinct individual whose body, mind and actions are separate from those of other people.
- Emerges at 18 months.
The sum total of the enduring characteristics such as behavior, thoughts, emotions, motives, and attitudes that differentiate one individual from another.
Connects biosocial and psychosocial development
- Emotions and personality are molded as parents reinforce or punish the child's spontaneous behavior.
- Infants experience Social Learning ( learning by observing)
Develop a working model
- A set of assumptions that become a frame of reference which will be used later in life.
- The indv uses this "blueprint" to organize perceptions and experiences.
- The inherent disposition that underlies and affects a person's responses to people and things. Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity and self- control
- The 3 types: Easy, Difficult, Slow to warm up
An emergent theory that seeks to explain development as the results of the dynamic interaction between each person and surrounding social & cultural forces
A theory that underlies the values and practices of a culture.
- A coordinated, rapid, and smooth interaction between caregiver and infant.
- An exchange in which the infant learns to express and read emotions
- How to react to an unfamiliar object or event by observing someone else's reaction.
- Actively seeking emotional info from a trusted person in an uncertain situation.
What are Piaget's strengths and weaknesses?
- Master reporter of children's behavior
- Sequence of cognitive development accurate.
- Development occurs in waves rather than stages
- Occurs earlier in infants than predicted
- Cognitive not dependent on motor skills
- Represent western culture