Micro chapter 2

  1. define matter
    anything that take up space
  2. what charge do electrons have?
    negative charges
  3. what kind of charge do protons have?
    positive charges
  4. what kind of charge do neutrons have?
    non- they are uncharged
  5. true or false?
    the number of electrons in an atom typically equal the number of protons so they tend to be electronically neutral?
  6. define element
    an element is matter composed of the same atoms, such as gold which only has gold atoms
  7. define atomic number
    the number of protons in their nuclei
  8. how many protons does hydrogen have?
    1 proton
  9. how many protons does carbon have?
    6 protons
  10. how many protons does oxygen have?
    8 protons
  11. what does the term atomic mass mean?
    the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons and electrons
  12. what are isotopes?
    when the number of neutrons in the nuclei is different even though it is the same element. example is carbon 12 which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons and carbon 13 which also has 6 protons but has 7 neurtons
  13. what makes isotopes unstable?
    the ratio or protons and neurtrons which release energy and subatomic particles such as neutrons, protons and electrons
  14. what are radioactive isotopes?
    atoms that undergo radioactive decay
  15. true or false?
     the nuclei of an atom determines their identity?
  16. what determines the chemical behavior of an atom?
    the number of electrons they carry
  17. what is the part/s of atoms that interact with each other?
    the electrons
  18. how many electrons do atoms need to be stable?
    8 electrons
  19. what constitutes positive valence?
    when atom has extra electrons to give
  20. what constitutes negative valence?
    when the atoms need spaces to be filled
  21. true or false?
    molecules are composed of two or more atoms
  22. define what is a compound?
    a compound is composed of two or more elements
  23. define inert gases
    gases that do not create chemical bonds
  24. define covalent bonds
    sharing a pair of electrons by two atoms
  25. define double covalent bonds
    two convalent bonds between two atoms
  26. define electronegativity
    the attraction of an atom for electrons, the greater the pull the more electrons it can pull away from other atoms and the smaller the atom gets because the negative electrons are pulled by the protons closer together
  27. define nonpolar covalent bond
    no negative or positive pulls from the atoms
  28. define polar covalent bond
    when the electronegativity of one atom is greater than another atoms and the shared electrons spends more time with the atom with greater electronegativity causing that atom to become slightly negative and the weaker atom slightly positive
  29. define ions?
    an atom or group of atoms which have either a full positive charge or full negative charge
  30. define cation?
    a positively charged atom
  31. define anions
    a negatively charged atoms
  32. define ionic bonds
    the attraction between cation and anions which creates a positive and negative bond
  33. do ionic bonds share electrons?
    no, they are attracted via positive and negative charged atoms
  34. what are electrolytes?
    when cations and anions disassociate from one another in water molecules which allow it to conduct electricity
  35. define hydrogen bonds
    the electrical attraction between positive and negative charge on the same molecule or different molecules
  36. true or false?
    hydrogen bonds share atoms?
    false they do not share atoms to bond them, they are electrically attracted to each other
  37. true or false?
    hydrogen bonds are stronger than covalent bonds?
    false, they are weaker
  38. define synthesis reactions
    the formation of larger more complex molecules
  39. define dehydration
    the synthesis of two smaller molecules being joined together by a covalent bond and a water molecule is also formed
  40. true or false? reactions that require energy are said to be endothermic reactions?
    true they are endothermic because they require energy and trap it withing new molecular bonds
  41. what is the definition of anabolism
    the sum chemical reactions in an organism
  42. define decomposition reactions
    the reverse of synthesis, its the breaking the bonds of large molecules to produce smaller molecules
  43. what is meant by exothermic?
    reactions that release energy
  44. what are endothermic reactions
    reactions that trap energy
  45. what is catabolism?
    collectively all the decomposition reactions in an organism
  46. what is metabolism?
    the total chemical reactions in an organism including catabolic, anabolic and exchange reactions
Card Set
Micro chapter 2
introduction to bio chem