Low Angle Rope Rescue

  1. Kern?
    Core of rope. Continuous parallel fivers throughout the length of the rope.
  2. Mantle?
    Sheath. Braided jacket half of the strands have a left twist. The other half has a right twist. Eliminates twist when loaded. Protects kern. 10% to 25% of rope's strength.
  3. High Strength Rope
    Dynamic. Greater than 10% stretch at 440 pounds of force. May stretch to 60% at breaking strength. Recreational climbing rope.
  4. Low Stretch Rope
    Has slightly more elongation that traditional static ropes. Between 6% and 10% elongation at 10% of minimum breaking strength.
  5. Static Rope
    Has slightly less elongation than low stretch ropes built to the same standard. Less elongation prevents loss of system efficiency from rope stretch. Preferred choice of the fire and technical rescue service. 1/2" nylon kernmantle. Most static kernmantle ropes have a thicker, tighter sheath than dynamic kernmantle ropes. Provides additional protection to the kern from abrasion and debris. Less than 10% elongation at 10% of minimum breaking strength.
  6. Kernmantle?
    core and sheath
  7. Visual and Physical inspection of ropes.
    • Discoloration, burns, excess wear and abrasion, unusual wear, cuts. Exposed core.
    • Soft spots, kinks, unusual bulges, inconsistent textures, unequal diameter or thickness, excess dirt.
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    • Low stretch kernmantle.
    • Uses: haul cam, ratchet cam, braking cam.
    • Made by barrel knot.
    • Short prusik: 1" from pulley after being tied and set.
    • Long Prusik: Extend 3-4" beyond short prusik.
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    • Webbing, varies depending upon type of construction. 1" wide.
    • Use: build anchor slings, build harnesses, lashing, load releasing device.
    • Types: Flat, constructed of single layer or material. Material is stiffer than tubular webbing.
    • Shuttle Loom(tubular) Continuous spiral of the fiber to form, Edge will not have seam.
    • Needle Loom: Formed by folding flat webbing lengthwise and stitching the two edges together. Industry standard.
    • Construction: Nylon; strong, lightweight, synthetic material.
    • Green=5' Yellow=12' Blue=15' Orange=20'
    • Strength: 1" tubular nylon= 4000 lbs. 1"flat nylon=6000 lbs
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    • Load Releasing Device: Pre-manufactured flat webbing with d-ring at one end, a sewn loop at the other end and a floating position d-ring in the middle of the webbing. One general use carabiner to attach the webbing to itself.
    • Use: Transfer the load from the belay/safety line back to main line. If belay/safety line tandem prusiks become loaded. Has some shock absorbing capacity. Can be used for changing over from a raising system to a lowering system or from a lowering system to a raising system.
    • Size: 13/4" wide webbing, 55" long webbing. Breaking at 45kn.
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    • Class II harness: Harness that fasten around waist, thights or buttocks. Designed to be used for emergency escapes with one-person loads.
    • Class III harness: Harness that fastens around waist, thighs, buttocks and over shoulders. Can be a one- or two piece model depending upon manufacturer. Designed for rescue where two-person loads can be.
    • Victim harness: Harness that attaches quickly and securely around the waist and thighs or under buttocks no matter where or how the victim is positioned. The design allows the harness to be put on without the victim having to step into the harness.
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    • Load-bearing metal connectors that link the elements of the rescue system. Create friction. **Lock the nut before the load.
    • Types: Oval, d shape, modified d, non-locking, locking, auto locking.
    • Steel or aluminum.
    • Max breaking strength 8992 lbs
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    • Components: an inverted U shaped frame with a welded eye at one end and anut on the other. A series of bars with a hole in one end enabling the bars to slide along the long side of the frame.
    • Use: Create friction, rappel or lower.
    • "tie off bar" is 90 degree twist of eye.
    • Steel rack: no streaking, provides less friction, heavier
    • Aluminum rack: provides more friction, light weight, streaks rope.
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    • Small ring: lower one for clipping into a seat harness with a carabiner.
    • Large ring: tope one through which rope passes to create friction.
    • Ears: or projections fabricated into the large ring.
    • Use: Create friction, rappel and lower.
    • Can't add more friction to the device. Easy to reeve.
    • Aluminum or steel.
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    • Components: Axle, bearing, sheave, side plates or cheeks.
    • Use: change of direction, mechanical advantage, reduce friction, tend prusiks(prusik minding pulley)
    • Types: Prusik minding pulley, round pulley, confined space rescue, industrial/cable.
    • Construction: aluminum, steel, sealed ball bearing, oilite bronze bushing.
    • Strength of 8093 lbs. Size of 1i/2" 4".
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    • Mechanical Grab device or Ascender.
    • Components: Shell, Cam, Pin.
    • Use: Ascender or haul cam.
    • Construction: aluminum or steel.
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    • Anchor Plate or collection plate.
    • Components: Large opening for anchor point, multiple smaller openings for system hardware attachment.
    • Use: Help organize anchor and system component rigging.
    • Construction: Stamped or machined out of billet sheet aluminum, stainless steel.
    • Strength of 8093 lbs.
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    • Edge Protector, Effective edge, Sheath, Rolling protector.
    • Use: Protects rope and other system software from abrasion and sharp edges.
    • Types: Edge roller, edge gaurd.
    • Construction: Roller: Aluminum wheels and frame, frame connects together in series.
    • Gaurd: Canvas, fire hose, plastic.
  19. Minimum rope tail lengths
    • Figure eight and bends in lifeline are 6"
    • Double overhand on a bight in lifeline is 2"
    • Overhand knots and bends in webbing are 2"
    • Half hitches in webbing or rope are 2"
    • Double overhand bend in prusik cordage is 1"
  20. Dressing a knot
    Means ensuring that any twists or abnormalities are removed from the knot leaving it looking uniform.
  21. Setting a knot
    Means pulling tension on all strands of the standing portion of the rope and on the tail left on either side of a knot. Removes any slack from the strands of the rope forming a knot. Effectively "setting" a knot.
  22. Knot
    Is a combination of components: bights, loops, and rounds turns. The combination that is used determines the specific knot that is constructed.
  23. Bending knot
    (overhand bend, figure eight bend, double overhand bend) is used to tie rope or webbing into itself to form a continuous loop, or to join two lengths of material together to extend length.
Card Set
Low Angle Rope Rescue