1. how many wbc's are seen in a normal urine per high power field
  2. when is indicative when urine is cloudy
    there are a significant # of WBC's present
  3. what should the biochemical test for wbc esterase be if 6-15 granulocytes per field are seen in high power
    positive if granulocytes and monocytes present(neg if lymphocytes present)
  4. how many fields should be used to count cells in a urine
    ten fields at high power
  5. what is increased number of wbcs indicative of
    infection or inflammation
  6. if bacteria is present as well as increased wbc what could this be indicative of
    infection of the kidney(pyelonephritis),bladder(cysititis), or urethra(urethritis)
  7. what impact rbc apperance in urine
    urine concentration (causes biconcave, oval, or round rbcs)
  8. how many rbcs must be present per field to be considered abnomal
    greater than 2-3 per high power field
  9. why might rbcs be seen in urine
    due to menstrual contamination or injury or disease of any portion of the urinary tract
  10. what color will urine be if a significant # of rbcs are present
    red or brown and cloudy
  11. how many rbcs are seen in a normal urine
    0-3 rbcs
  12. what type of epithelial cells may be indicative of disease if seen in large #'s
    transitional or renal tubular
  13. large #'s of sqaumous epithelial cells are may be indicative of what in a female
    vaginal contamination during collection
  14. what are oval fat bodies
    renal tubular epithelial cells that contain lipids
  15. what are oval fat bodies normally associated with
    nephroitic syndrome
  16. if the fat present in oval fat body is cholesterol what do the fat droplets form
    maltese cross
  17. what power is cast observed under
    low power
  18. what are hyaline cast composed primarily of
    simple TammHorsfall protein
  19. why might a cast appear yellow
    due to the bilirubin in the urine
  20. waxy cast usually indicates
    end stage of renal disease
  21. Name the normal & abnormal crystals
    • normal-uric acid ca oxalate calcium phosphate triple phosphate calcium carbonate amm. biurate
    • abnormal- cystine sulfa tyrosine leucine bilirubin
  22. describe the appearance of uric acid crystals
    brown in color and may be barrel, rosette, six-sided, or diamond shaped
  23. what association may uric acid crystals have
    kidney stone formation
  24. describe the appearance of calcium oxalate crystals
    envelope, dumbbell, ovoid, or rectangular shaped
  25. describe the appearance of calcium phosphate crystals
    large flat shaped plates or wedged-shaped prisms which appear in rosettes if singly appear flat on one end and pointed on the other
  26. describe the appearance of triple phosphate crystals
    coffin-lid shaped or fern leaf shaped(due to freshly newly formed)
  27. describe the appearance of calcium carbonate crystals
    seen as granules or dumbbells and may appear as a large aggregates or single form
  28. what do ammonium biruate usually indicate
    old or poorly preserved specimen
  29. describe the appearance of ammonium biruate crystals
    thorny apple shaped and yellowish brown
  30. what are the cholesterol crystals associated with
    nephrotic syndrome
  31. describe cholesterol crystals appearance
    appear as clear, flat plates with notched corners
  32. cystine crystals are most frequently cause of
    kidney stones in children
  33. appearance of cystine crystals
    colorless thin hexagonal plates typically six sides
  34. when might leucine crystals be seen
    in liver disorders in which amino acids metabolism is impaired
  35. appearance of leucine crystals
    yellow brown spheroids with concentric rings around the outer edge and radial striations in the center
  36. describe the appearance of tyrosine crystals
    colorless to yellow brown single fine needles and pointed ends
  37. what may bacteria in a clean catch specimen indicated with wbc present also
    infection of the kidney or lower urinary tract
  38. how may bacteria in urine appear
    rod or cocci shaped and motile
  39. what is the most common yeast seen in urine
    candida albicans
  40. what is yeast a common cause of
    urinary tract infection in immunocompromised and diabetics pts.
  41. describe the appearance of speam
    oval headed and long tail seen in male or female
  42. describe the appearance of trichomonas
    pear shaped parasite with 4 flagella(common cause of vaginitis)
  43. what might rbcs without any other abnormal findings be indicative of and reported if large amount seen
    early indication of renal or bladder cancer
  44. what do urinary sediment with bacteria and no wbc indicate
    the specimen was poorly handled
  45. what do the presence of wbc cast indicates
    the wbc seen in the sediment originates in the kidney itself and consistent with inflammation or infection of the kidney called pyelonephritis
  46. the presence of rbc casts is indicative of
    acute glomerulonephritis
  47. what are wbc associated with
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