What are the 5 myths of american societal change?
- social mobility has increased
- religion has decreased
- violence has increased
- americans have become more alienated from their work
- americans dont care for the needy like they used to
what has influenced american care for the needy?
- more institutionalized social programs
- more education about lower classes
- easier to help than before
5 American society themes?
- public spaces
Greek roots of educational ideas?
knowledge can be divided into individual subjects
Athenian roots of educational ideas?
education is important to participate in a democracy
reformation roots of educational ideas?
church leaders pushed education, in order to understand Bible, one must be literate
The old deluder satan act
- required towns with 50 families to hire a schoolteacher and towns with 100 families to build a school house
What were three elements of southern schools?
- difficult for children to attend school
- rural communities
- nonexistant for slaves
- traveling tutors and boarding schools
- education left to wealthy landowners
3 characteristics of universal elementary education?
- focus on religion
- harsh discipline
- poorly prepared teachers
What did the common school movement establish?
trend of education being available to all
who headed the common school movement?
What were three components of the common school movement?
- tax payers finance education
- curriculum standardized
- schools organized by grade level
Normal school and when was first one established as a result of what?
- teachers college
- est. 1839 as result of common school movement
What was the purpose of early higher education?
to train ministers and government leaders
What was required for early high education admission?
proficiency in greek and latin
What was the curriculum like for early colleges?
- emphasized classics and liberal arts
- no sciences/practical subjects taught
In Loco Parentis
for the best of children, state must have parental authority
When did women become formal participants in
higher education (approximately)?
mid 19th century
Implications of the Land Grant Act of 1890
- provided funding for black
- colleges offering studies in agricultural & mechanics
Elements of higher education after WWI
enrollment rose during the great depression
beginning in 1920s institutions had luxury of choice
led to SAT
diversity and discrimination remains an issue
Rise of the “Multiversity”
- students begin to complain about
- large classes and psychological distance between faculty and students
- by 1970s: media portrays campuses
- as battlegrounds
What are three educational affects
- human capital
- general capacities
- general dispositions
three economic indicators
- gross domestic product
- unemployment rate
- price indexes
2 types of price indexes
- consumer price index: measures pace of inflation
- producer price index: measure of prices at
- wholesale level
How did capitalism influence the industrial revolution (5 ways)?
- led to investing in factories
- led to increased production &
- higher demands for raw materials
- led to world wide trade
- led to new inventions/innovations
- led to changes in transportation,
- agriculture and communication
What freedoms are involved in the free market society?
- freedom of competition within government guidelines
- freedom of choice about where to live, what work to do
What are two components of a free market society?
- private property
- profit/ownership (right to keep profits)
What are 4 large social changes since 1900?
- Education became a huge social divider
- lived longer, made more money
- variation among family stage shrank
How is history a social construction?
- bias in history
- we see ourselves as at a pivotal moment
- nostalgia mythologizes past
- create our views concerning where we were and where we are going
- rely on commonly shared American myths
consumerism exists and always has
america is an individualist cultutre
- 19th century: americans joined public life
- 20th century: Americans returned to private life
Americans worked on perfecting "selves", learned to restrain disruptive emotions and cultivate socially useful ones
Education and divergent thinking
uses of paperclip: as children grow up they become less creative
What is the importance of owning the means of production?
workers have nothing to sell but labor which leads to exploitation
Todays economic challenges concerning capitalism (2)
changing attitudes towards work:
decline of american manufacturing
What are the changing attitudes towards work?
- increased education rearranges ideas about what to expect from life,
- work should provide opportunity for self improvement
Explain the decline of American manufacturing
- outsourcing jobs since 1980s
- evolution of a new kind of company that does little to no manufacturing
Pros of capitalism (4)
- Individual freedom
- Effectively coordinates market
- Economy driven by consumers wants (consumer sovereignty)
- Only sometimes ineffective b.c. of government interference
Cons of capitalism (6)
- Poverty and inequality challenge fairness of capitalism
- "it takes money to make money"
- Capitalism wrongly assumes humans are rational economic maximizers
- Assumes greater well-being is greater material consumption
- Marx: exploitation and alienation
- Corporate welfare protects businesses from competition
- Impacts on environment