Test 2 lecture (lecture 10 & 11)

  1. Metabolism
    all the chemical reactions in the body
  2. Catabolism
    • breakdown of complex organic molecules
    • release stored energy
  3. Anabolism
    • combine simple molecules to form complex molecules
    • require energy
  4. ATP
    • is NOT energy it just transports it
    • is an energy coupling agent
    • not a fuel
  5. Energy Coupling
    energy released by 1 set of reactions is almost immediately consumed by another
  6. Energy is release from ATP when?
    When the 3rd phosphate bond is broken turning it back to ADP
  7. Oxidation
    • removal of electrons
    • results in decreases in energy content
  8. Reduction
    • addition of electrons
    • results in increase in energy content
  9. " OIL RIG"
    • Oxidation Is Loss
    • Reduction Is Gain
  10. Coenzymes
    NAD & FAD temporarily hold enzymen then release them
  11. 2 Coenzymes
    • NAD
    • FAD
  12. 1 glucose yields
    36 ATP
  13. Aerobic respiration
    presence of oxygen
  14. Anaerobic respiration
    absence of oxygen
  15. Aerobic Cellular Respiration
    • 4 steps
    • Glycolysis
    • Formation of acetyl coenzyme A
    • Krebs cycle
    • Electron transport chain
  16. What happens in the 1st step
    oxidize 1 6-carbon molecule of glucose into 1 3-carbon molecules of pyruvate in a series of smaller steps called Glycolysis

    • Occurs in the cytoplasm
    • 0not required
    • outside of the Mitochondria
  17. What happens in the 2st step
    Formation of Acetyl
    • if sufficient oxygen present acetyl is formed from splitting pyruvic acid
    • 3-carbon
    • Pyruvic acid
    • 2-carbon
  18. What happens in the 3rd step
    Krebs Cycle
    Acetyl diffuses into the ,matrix of the mitochondria
  19. What happens in the 4th step
    Electron Transport Chain
    series of 3 electron carriers known as CYTOCHROMES which are embedded within the inner mitochondrial membrane
    series of 3 electron carries they are imbedded in the mitochondria membrane
  21. Oxygen is the final what?
    Ois the final electron acceptor
  22. Tight Junctons
    • found where leakproof seal are needed between cells
    • (Ie: stomach and bladder)
  23. Adheren Junctions
    • adhesion belt prevents tissues from separating as they stretch and contract
    • (Ie: intestinal epithelium)
  24. Desmosome
    • Act as "spot welds"
    • found in the heart and epidermis
  25. Hemidesmosomes
    are half welds- join cells to the basement membrane
  26. Gap Junction
    are pores that allow water and small substance like ions to pass between cells
  27. Simple Squamous Epithelium
    found where large amounts of fluid or gas need to pass through quickly
  28. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
    often found ling the tubules of the kidneys and glands
  29. Simple Columnar Epithelium
    • can be found lining the intestines
    • have Goblet cells
    • Microvilli increase surface area for absorption
  30. Cilia
    • beat in unison to move mucous, foreign particles, or large cells
    • (Ie: bronchioles, fallopian tubes)
  31. Transitional Epithelium
    • found only in the urinary bladder
    • apical "dome cells" of the top layer signify an empty bladder while the cells are flattened in a fuller bladder
  32. Endocrine glands
    • ductless- do not have ducts to convey secretion
    • Secretions enter directly into adjacent blood vessels and are transported throughout the body in blood
  33. Exocrine glands
    ducts convey the secretions to the surface of skin, lumen, or other open surface
  34. Categorize multicellular glands according to function based in manner of secretion to the outside environment
    • Merocrine
    • Apocrine
    • Holocrine
  35. Merocrine
    • secretion is the most common
    • releases production by exocytosis, no part of the gland is lost or damaged
  36. Apocrine
    • glands "bud" off secretions
    • end of cell breaks off
  37. Holocrine
    releasing entire cellular contents into the lumen and killing the cell
  38. Carcinoma
    cancer derived from epithelium
Card Set
Test 2 lecture (lecture 10 & 11)
Test 2 lecture (lecture 10 & 11)