1. Lucretius
    disease caused by invisible living creatures
  2. Aristotle
    Spontaneous generation: organisms arise de novo from nonliving sources
  3. Galen
    imbalance between 4 humours (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile) caused disease
  4. Girolamo Fracastoro
    invisible organisms ("germs") caused disease such as syphillis
  5. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
    "Father of Microbiology"; Drew and described bacteria and protozoa; described in royal society of London transactions
  6. Robert Hooke
    Published first drawing of microorganism in Micrographia
  7. Agostino Bassi de Lodi
    silkworm disease caused by fungus
  8. Johannes Van Helmont
    • Mice from Wheat 
    • Pro Spontaneous Generation
  9. John Needham
    • "Vital force" from infusions
    • Pro Spontaneous Generation
  10. Georges Leclerc, comte de Buffon
    Pro Spontaneous Generation
  11. Louis Joblot
    • Found microbes in hay infusions; described protozoa
    • Con Spontaneous Generation
  12. Francisco Redi
    • Maggots do not arise spontaneously
    • Con Spontaneous Generation
  13. Schroder, van Dusch
    • filtered air
    • Con Spontaneous Generation
  14. Theodor Schwann
    • Discovered yeast were living cells, and fermentation a biological process
    • Con Spontaneous Generation
  15. Schleiden
    • with Schwann proposed the Cell Theory
    • Con Spontaneous Generation
  16. Shultze
    • heated air
    • Con Spontaneous Generation
  17. Lazzaro Spallazani
    • Air may carry germs; described bacterial binary fission
    • Con Spontaneous Generation
  18. Anton Lavoisier
    • Air contains oxygen; not enough oxygen in closed flask to support microbes
    • Con Spontaneous Generation
  19. Louis Pasteur
    • Final refutation of spontaneous generation; also worked with anthrax
    • Con Spontaneous Generation
  20. Ignaz Semmelweis
    hand washing prevents puerperal fever; used chlorine as antiseptic
  21. Joseph Lister
    Sterilization of instruments with heat; use of phenol as antiseptic
  22. Robert Koch
    Found spore-like bodies in Bacillus anthracis; developed postulates relating causative agent to disease; developed methods of growing pure cultures of bacteria 
  23. Fannie Eilshemius Hesse & Walther Hesse
    used agar to solidify media
  24. Richard Petri
    developed container to hold solidified media
  25. John Tyndall
    Heat-resistant life forms present; Dust does carry microbes
  26. Ferdinand Cohn
    Named heat-resistant forms of bacteria "endospores"
  27. Sergei Winogradsky
    Described lithotrophy; used model ecosystem
  28. Martinius Beijerinck
    Use of enrichment cultures; described nitrogen fixation
  29. Ronald Atlas
    modern methods of microbial ecology; involved with Deepwater Horizon oil spill
  30. Rita Colwell
    Worked with Vibrios; marine microbiology; coined "viable but nonculturable bacteria"
  31. Lynn Marguelis
    Endosymbiont hypothesis; parasitic bacteria in eukaryotes gave rise to mitochondria and chloroplasts
  32. Thomas Brock
    Discovered archaeons
  33. Norm Pace
    Sequenced thermophiles
  34. Carl Woese
    Described archaeons; used 16s rRNA to characterize species; developed "domains"
  35. J. Craig Venter
    First to sequence bacterial genomes (Haemophilus influenzae)
  36. Claire Fraser
    Sequenced bacterial genomes with venter
  37. Karen Nelson
    showed lateral gene transfer from archaeons to bacteria; sequenced Thermotoga maritima
  38. Hamilton Smith--Nobel Laureate
    for co-discovery of restriction enzymes; First to sequence bacterial genomes (Haemophilus influenzae) in 1994-95 with venter
  39. Terry Hazen
    Work with Deepwater Horizon Oil spill
  40. D. Jay Grimes
    work with deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; work with vibrios
  41. Friedrich Miescher
    discovered nuclein (nucleic acid)
  42. Frederick Griffith
    Transformation; suggested that DNA might be genetic material
  43. George Beadle and Edward Tatum
    Used ascomycete Neurospora crassa to formulate One gene, one enzyme/polypeptide hypothesis
  44. Barbara McClintock and Harriet Creighton
    discovered “jumping genes” (transposons) in maize
  45. Oswald Avery, Maclyn McCarty, Colin MacLeod
    “Transforming agent” was DNA
  46. Erwin Chargaff
    [A]=[T] and [G]=[C], but [A+T]ǂ[G+C]
  47. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase
    Bacteriophage and blender expt. suggested DNA as genetic material
  48. Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin
    X-ray diffraction of DNA
  49. James Watson and Francis Crick
    molecular model of DNA as double helix
  50. Severo Ochoa and Marianne Grunberg-Manago
    discover polynucleotide phosphorylase, which adds bases to RNA
  51. Paul Zamecnik
    discovered ribosomes
  52. Mahlon Hoagland, Paul Zamecnik and Francis Crick
    describe translation
  53. Mathew Meselson and Franklin Stahl
    DNA replicates semi-conservatively
  54. Arthur Kornberg, IR Lehrman, MJ Bessman, and Ernest S. Simms
    Discover DNA polymerase III as enzyme involved in DNA replication
  55. Francis Crick
    coined “Central dogma”
  56. Carl Woese, Francis Crick, and Leslie Orgel
    propose life started with RNA and evolved to DNA
  57. Marshall Mirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei
    describe triplet genetic code
  58. Jacques Monod, Francois Jacob, and Andre Lwoff
    describe regulation of genes involved in degradation of lactose
  59. H.Gobind Khorana
    Assigned triplet codons to individual amino acids
  60. Howard Temin and David Baltimore
    independently discover viral  RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase)
  61. Lynn Dalgarno and John Shine and Joan Steitz
    define ribosomal binding site
  62. Thomas Cech and Sid Altman
    discover autocatalytic processes in RNA
  63. Enzo di Fabrizio
    takes first electron micrograph photograph of DNA strands
  64. Koch Postulate's
    • 1. Microorganism present in every case of disease
    • 2. Microorganism must be grown in pure culture
    • 3. Same disease when second host inoculated with pure culture
    • 4. The microorganism must be isolated from the infected host
  65. Molecular Postulate's (Stanley Falkow)
    • 1. Virulence trait seen with pathogenic strains, not nonpathogenic strains.
    • 2. Inactivation of gene(s) associated with virulence decrease(s) pathogenicity
    • 3. Replacement of the mutated gene with wild-type gene restores pathogenicity.
    • 4. Gene should be expressed some time during infection & disease process
    • 5. Antibodies/immune system cells directed against gene products protect host.
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