What are infective agents?
How do you classify bacteria?
- Cell wall
- O2 Requirements
What is a prion and what is one example?
- A small proteinaceous infectious disease-causing agent that is believed to be the smallest infectious particle. Contains no genetic material
- No treatment available
- Creutzfelt Jakob Disease (Mad Cow Disease)
What are the components of the Infection Cycle?
- Infectious agent
- Portal of Exit
- Portal of Entry
- Susceptible host
What are the modes of transmission?
- Contact: Direct, Indirect, and Fomite
- Vector-borne: west nile virus, Lymes disease
What are common portals of exit and entry?
- breaks in the skin
- blood and tissue
What are some determining factors for a susceptible host?
- Immunity: acquired or natural
- health habits
- general health status
How do you tell the difference between a local and systemic infection?
- Local: edema, erythema, exudate
- Systemic: febrile, fatigue, anorexia, lynph node enlargement, inflammatory response throughout the body
What are the three duration periods of an infection?
- Acute: fast onset and short infection resulting in healing
- Chronic: lasts longer than 6 months, such as osteomyelitis
- Latent: Takes time to show s/s such as Mad Cow Disease
What are the stages of infection?
- Incubation Period: time of exposure until time of first s/s
- Prodromal Stage: most infectious stage, general and vague s/s
- Stage of Illness: s/s of illness
- Convalescent Stage: recovery
What are the three lines of defense against illness?
- Primary line of defense: normal flora, mucus membranes, pH balance, anatomical features that limit entry
- Secondary line of defense: inflammatory response
- Third line of defense: activation of immune responses against specific, recognized invaders
- -humoral immunity: B lymphocytes-->allergies
- -Cell-mediated response: T lymphocytes
What is a normal WBC?
What are some factors that support host defense?
- rest and exercise
- stress reduction
What are some risk factors for infection?
- developmental stage
- breaks in the first line of defense
- illness or injury
- substance abuse
- multiple sexual partners
- environmental factors
- chronic disease
- nursing and medical procedures
What do the ESR and C-reactive protein labs test for?
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and c-reactive protein labs are markers to tell if the inflammation response is occuring
What are the lab values for a WBC with differential?
- elevated neutrophils are a sign of infection
- elevated eosinophils are a sign of allergic response
What is the difference between medical and surgical asepsis?
- Medical asepsis: clean technique
- surgical asepsis: sterile technique
Who is responsible for creating infection control precautions?
- OSHA regulations for universal precautions
- current CDC guidelines
What is the Tier One CDC Guidelines?
- Standard Precautions
- -follow hand hygiene techniques
- -wear clean nonsterile gloves
- -wear PPE equipment when necessary
- -Avoid recapping needles
- -handle soiled patient care equipment carefully
- -Review room assignments
What are the tier two CDC guidelines?
- -used for patients with known or suspected to be infected or colonized with infectious agents
- -use in addition to standard precautions
- *Contact Precautions (most common)
- *Droplet Precautions
- *Airborn Precautions
What is protective isolation?
It protects an immuno-compromised patient from organisms brought in by healthcare workers and visitors
What is an HAI?
A hospital acquired illness
often a UTI or pneumonia