What does 'dorsal' mean?
Toward the back
What does 'ventral' mean?
Toward the belly
Toward the sides
Near the middle
Toward the hear
Toward the hind end (tail)
On or near the surface
Some distance below the surface
Relating tot he midplane which bisects the left and right sides
Relating to the plane spearating anterior and posterior
near to the point of reference
Far from the point of reference
Relating to the chest and shoulder region
Relating to the hip revion
Relating to the skin
When the terms 'right and left' are used in the lab, what does it refer to?
Refers to the specimens right and left, not yours
Definition: abdominal cavity
Related to the area below the ribcage
Definition: Thoracic cavity
Related to the area above the ribcage
What are the three types of muscle tissue?
- Skeletal (striated)
- Visceral (smooth)
- Cardiac (heart)
What is skeletal muscle?
Used for the movement of the appendages, trunk, hear, jaw, eyes, etc.
What is visceral muscle?
Found in the walls of the digestive tract, arteries, veins, uterus, bladder and many glands
What is cardiac muscle?
A special type of muscle found only in the heart
Generally, how is the muscle attached?
Attached at each end
What is the less movable attachment of the muscle called?
What is the more moveable attachment of the muscle called?
What is the 'belly' of the muscle?
Fleshy central portion of a muscle
How is muscle attached to bone?
By means of a narrow band of connective tissue called a tendon
What do most skeletal muscles move?
Most skeletal muscles move bones and cartilages
Give an example of skeletal muscles that do not move bones and cartilage
Some cause movement of soft parts, for example, facial muscles which originate on a bone and insert on the easily movable skin of the face
Where does the bicep brachii originate from and insert?
Originate from scapula, insert on radius
Where does the tricep originate from and insert?
Originate from scapula and humerus and insert on ulna
What is the antagonist of a bicep?
What are extensors?
Straighten members such as fingers, arms, etc.
What is a flexor muscle?
Bend members such as fingers, arms, etc.
What are rotator muscles?
- Turn members on their axis
- eg. turning your neck
What are elevator muscles?
Lift or raise parts or structures
What are sphincter muscles?
Surround openings which close when muscles contract
What is the action of the bicep brachii?
Flexes and rotates the forearm
What is the origin, insertion, and action of the bicep femoris?
- Origin: sacral and caudal vertebrae
- Insertion: distal end of femur, proximal end of tibia
- Action: extend the hip, stifle (knee) and hock (ankle)
What is the origin, insertion, and action of gastrocnemius?
- Origin: medial/lateral epicondyle femur
- Insertion: dorsal surface of tuber calcanei (achilles tendon)
- Action: extend the hind food
What is the origin, insertion and action of the external oblique?
- Origin: 4th-12th ribs and lumbar fascia
- Insertion: crest of ilium, pubis, linea alba
- Actions: to compress the abdominal region. Along with the internal oblique it supports the abdominal viscera
What is the function of salivary glands?
Production of saliva
What are the digestive functions of saliva?
- Include moistening food, and helping to creat a food bolus
- Saliva contains the enzyme amylase that breaks some starches into glucose molecules
What is the parotid salivary gland?
Lies just behind the ear and extends over the ventro-lateral surface of the neck
What is the mandibular salivary gland?
cranial to the larger parotid glands
What are the 4 salivary glands?
What are the thoracic organs?
- Thymus Gland
What is the difference between the left and right lungs and why?
- Right lung as three lobes, left lung as two
- Due to orientation of the heart
What is the function of the diaphragm?
- This muscle separating thoracic and abdominal cavity
- Used in respiration
What is the thymus gland?
- Lies cranial to heart
- Responsible for development of the immune system
What is the liver responsible for?
Glycogen storage, plasma proteins synthesis, drug detoxification, production of bile
How many lobes are in a rats liver and what are they?
4- median, right lateral lobe, caudate lobe, left lateral lobe
What is a gallbladder responsible for?
- Storage of bile
- Bile is released into duodenum when fatty foods enter the digestive tract
What is cholecystectomy?
Removing the gallbladder, causes no problems with health or digestion but there may be some side-effects such as diarrhea
What is the omentum?
- Fatty tissue
- Storage of fat- can lead to 'beer belly' in man
- Visceral fat is the type of fat that is metabolized by the liver, which turns it into cholesterol (LDL); correlation with diabetes
What is the stomach used for?
- Food storage, food breakdown
- Gastric juices break down proteins
- 3 different regions- cardiac, fundic, pyloric
What is the spleen used for?
Storage site for platelets in humans, RBC destruction, production of lymphocytes (immune system)
What does a splenectomy increase the risk for?
What is the pancreas used for?
Produces digestive enzymes (pancreatic juices breakdown lipids), secretes insulin
What is the small intestine used for?
What are the 3 regions of the small intestine?
What is the mesentery?
Connecting small intestine to back wall of the abdomen, encased in this strong connective tissue are nerves; blood vessels: arteries provide nutrients and lymph vessels removes waste
What is the colon used for?
Final digestion, water absorption
What are the 4 sections of the colon?
What is the cecum?
- Connecting the ileum with the ascending colon of the large intestine
- Aid in the enzymatic breakdown of plant materials such as cellulose
What is the rectum?
Between sigmoid colon and anus
What are adrenal glands?
- Responsible for releasing hormones in response to stress through the synthesis of coirtico-steroids such as cortisol and epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine
- They also produce androgens
- The adrenal glands affect kidney function through the secretion of aldosterone, a hormone involved in reguating the osmolarity of blood plasma
What are the kidneys used for?
- Serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid-base balance, and regulation of blood pressure
- The kidneys serve as a natural filter of the blood, and wastes are sent to the urinary bladder through the ureters