Psychology: Chapter 6 (2 of 2)

  1. Partial-reinforcement extinction effect
    greater persistence of behavior under partial then under continuous reinforcement
  2. latent learning
    learning which occurs w.o. reinforcement
  3. meme
    unit of knowledge transmitted within a culture
  4. observational learning
    acquisition or modification of behavior after exposure to performance of behavior
  5. Bandura
    Bodo doll observational learning studies     Media & Violence
  6. Modeling
    imitation of observed behavior

    more likely to imitate models who are attractive, have high status and are similar to ourselves
  7. vicarious learning
    people learn about an action's consequences by watching others being rewarded or punished for that action
  8. Mirror Neurons
  9. neurons which are activated when one performs an action which they had just observed another perform
  10. What are three functions of mirror neurons?
    • help us to explain and predict others' behavior 
    • neural basis for empathy
    • play a role in human ability to communicate through language
  11. Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS)
    • self administered shock to particular part of brain
    • acts on same brain regions as those activated by food, water, sex
    • neural mechanisms underlying ICSS & natural reward both use dopamine
  12. cognitive map
    visual/spatial mental representation of environment
  13. pleasure centers
    brain regions which support ICSS
  14. Nucleus Accumbens
    • subcortical brain region which is a part of limbic system
    • contains dopamine neurons
  15. When is dopamine released?
    hungary, thirsty, watching cartoons, listening to good music
  16. Can dopamine be released in response to a secondary reinforcer?
    Yes, as long as it is paired with CS through classical conditioning
  17. engram
    storage of learned material through changes in nervous system
  18. Hebb
    learning results from alterations in synaptic connections
  19. Explain Hebb's rule: cells that fire together, wire together.
    When one neruon excites another, connection between two neurons is strengthened , so firing of one neuron increasingly causes firing of the other
  20. habituation
    decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to nonthreatening stimul
  21. Sensitization
    increase in behavioral response after exposure to threatening stimulus
  22. Long Term Potentiation (LTP)
    strengthening of a synaptic connection -> postsynaptic neurons are more easily activated

    involved in learning & memory
  23. hippocampus
    highly involved in learning and memory
  24. NMDA Receptor
    type of glutamate receptor which is required for long term potentiation (LTP)

    opens only if nearby neuron fires at same time
  25. What was discovered in Tsien's "Doogie mice" experiments?
    modified genes in mice to make NMDA receptors more efficient -> mice performed amazingly in learning tests
  26. Regions of brain where long term potentiation (LTP) occurs
    • hippocampus
    • amygdala (fear conditioning)
  27. Four aspects to process of modeling
    • Attention: one must pay attention to behavior & consequences
    • Retention: must store mental representation & be able to recall what was observed
    • Reproduction: must have motor ability to reproduce the modeled behavior
    • Motivation: must expect benefit from performing action
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Psychology: Chapter 6 (2 of 2)