
A set of imaginary lines which intersect at right angles and which have some sort of value or a numbering system. On a map, we call these meridians and parallels.
Geographical Grid

Because the Earth is a sphere or circle, DEGREES are used to measure distance from the equator (0 degrees), or the Prime Meridian (0 degrees).
Circular Measurement

An imaginary line which which runs east to west or west to east and is the angular distance measured in degrees north or south of the equator.
Latitude

An imaginary line that runs north to south or south to north and is the angular distance measuring in degrees east to west from the Prime Meridian.
Longitude

What's Windsor's longitude and latitude?
42 degrees North, 83 degrees West

What's at 90 degrees North?
North Pole

What's at 90 degrees South?
South Pole

What's at 23.5 degrees North?
Tropic of Cancer

What's at 23.5 degrees South?
Tropic of Capricorn

What's at 66.5 degrees North?
Arctic Circle

What's at 66.5 degrees South?
Antarctic Circle

Name the hemispheres.
Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western

What's at 180 degrees and where is it?
International Date Line, which is in the Pacific Ocean

How are degrees broken down?
 They're broken down into 60 minutes, and each minute is broken down into 60 seconds.
 e.g. 5° 30' 45''
 (5 degrees, 30 minutes, 45 seconds)

_______ is the angular distance, measured in _______, north or south of the _______.

_________ is the angular distance, measured in _______, east or west of the _____ ________.
 Longitude
 Degrees
 Prime Meridian

The imaginary line on the opposite side of the globe is the _____________ ____ ____.
International Date Line

Latitude ranges from 0 ___ N and from 0 to ___ S.

Longitude ranges from 0 to ____ E and from 0 to ____ W.

What is another way to refer to the International Date Line?
The 180th meridian.

For latitude and longitude, if the numbers increase in the same hemisphere and same direction, then you...
 Subtract the bigger number from the smaller one and stay in the same hemisphere.
 e.g. 43° N to 58° N.
 5843=15
 You're moving 15° N.

For latitude and longitude, if the numbers decrease in the same direction, you...
 Subtract the bigger number from the smaller one, and go in the opposite direction.
 e.g. 42°S to 21°S
 4221=21
 You're moving 21° North.

For latitude and longitude, if you cross 0°, then you...
 Add and go to the last direction.
 e.g. 40°N to 32°S.
 40+32=72
 You're moving 72° South.

How do you find out how many degrees you move when you cross the Prime Meridian?
 Subtract both degrees by 180 and then add the results. You move in the first hemisphere.
 155°E to 147°W.
 180155=25, 180147=33
 25+33=58.
 You're moving 58° East.

What is rotation?
It's when the Earth turns on its axis every 24 hours.

What is Direction of Rotation?
 The Earth rotates from west to east. We know this because the sun appears to rise in the east and set in the west. Since the sun doesn't move, the Earth must be turning west to east.
 The places in the east have later times and places in the west have earlier times.

How many degrees does the Earth move in 24 hours?
360°

How do you figure out how long the sun is over each degree?
 Since we know that in 24 hours, the Earth rotates 360°, we divide that, which 15°. Meaning that the sun is moves 15° in one hour or 60 minutes. So you divide 60 by 15, giving you the amount of degrees the sun moves in 1 minute.
 360°/24 hours=15° in 60 minutes.
 60 minutes/15°=4 minutes for 1°

Who invented time zones?
Sir Sanford Flemming, a Canadian train engineer.

If it's 8:00pm in Windsor (83°W), what time is in in London, Ontario (79°W)?
 First, you have to subtract the degrees, and then multiply the result by 4 minutes because that's how long it takes for the sun to get over 1°.
 8379=4
 4° x 4 minutes=16 minutes.
 When it's 8:00pm in Windsor, it's 8:16pm in London, Ontario.

How many timezones are in the world?
24

How far apart are the timezones in the world?
1 hour, or 15°

Do you gain or lose a day when travelling west?
You lose a day.

Do you gain or lose a day when travelling east?
Gain a day.

What is Greenwich known as?
The Mean Time, or Universal Time.

How many timezones are there in Canada?
6

Name the 6 Canadian timezones.
Pacific S.T., Mountain S.T., Central S.T., Eastern S.T., Atlantic S.T., Newfoundland S.T.

How long of a difference is between the Canadian timezones?
There's a 1 hour difference each, except for Newfoundland which is half an hour.

For timezones, do you add or subtract when moving west?
Subtract.

For timezones, do you add or subtract when moving east?
Add.

