B. TECH TEST I | Set 2

  1. Choosing Building Systems

    What impacts budget?
    • Material costs: can you buy it "off the shelf?"
    • Hard cost, delivery cost, labor cost
    • Minimize waste and construction time by working to the readily available material sizes?
    • Labor is often going to be at least half of the budget.
    • Can you prefabricate parts of - or the entire - building? Will this help?
    • Is special equipment needed for assembly? Cranes? Concrete pump?
    • Do you have to spend labor time in pre-assembly and dis-assembly of support structures such as concrete formwork or complex jigs? Do you have the budge to support mock-ups for more experimental efforts?
    • Does the structural assembly impact other parts of the budget such as thermal and sound insulation?
    • Do you have a relationship with a builder who will take up the challenges you present without a high bid?
    • Is the structural system commonly used in the area? Would the use of regional materials and techniques help?
    • Regular vs. irregular forms
    • Exposed or concealed structure
    • Minimize walls and columns - long spans
    • Floor systems
    • Will the building be phased or changed over time?
    • Location
    • Construction time
    • Size and time
    • Structural appearance
    • Dead loads on the foundation
    • Poor bearing conditions
    • Trades involved
    • Integrated HVAC (concealed spaces for HVAC)
    • Sustainablility
    • Codes
  2. Choosing Building Systems: Budget

    Regular vs. Irregular Forms
    • Regular orthogonal forms such as basic hotels and motels or warehouses often use concrete masonry units
    • Vs. irregular forms such as the Birds Nest where each piece is unique
  3. Choosing Building Systems: Budget

    Exposed or Concealed Structure
    • Do you want the structure to be the finished surface? Concrete, wood timbers for instance can be easily left exposed
    • Are you controlling sound? This may lead to the need to hide the structure so you can control sound with finishes.
    • Are you in wet conditions? Concrete or galvanized steel.
    • Do you want to leave the structure exposed while achieving fire ratings? Wood timbers or concrete
  4. Choosing Building Systems: Budget

    Minimize Walls and Columns (Long Spans)
    • Are the structural components indoor or outdoor?
    • Fire ratings
  5. Choosing Building Systems: Budget

    Floor Systems
    • Floor to floor heights and what sorts of demand will be made of the floor structure
    • The floor systems are quite often the first structural issues to be determined
  6. Choosing Building Systems: Budget

    Floor Structure Questions to Resolve
    • How is the space being used? Heavy industrial loads, parking garages, showroom, residential...the live loads will be dramatically different.
    • Height restrictions?
    • Is a thin floor plate most important? More important than budget?
    • Column layout (floor spans)?
    • Fire rating?
  7. Choosing Building Systems: Budget

    Phased or Changed Over Time
    • If adding stories in the future, the foundation and the first phase structure must be designed to accept the future loads.
    • If adding on horizontally the foundation must be designed so it is not undermined by the addition.
    • The envelope should be made as easy as possible to alter and connect
    • Movement joints should be considered.
  8. Choosing Building Systems: Budget

    • Climate
    • Wet or dry conditions
    • Warm or cold or temperate? Severe temperature changes?
    • Mold issues
    • Cool or heat passively?
    • Regional materials
    • Regional language
    • Tornadoes - shelters f concrete or reinforced masonry or steel
    • Hurricanes - ways to close up and be prepared for moisture and wind
    • Straight winds - a little flexibility
    • Earthquakes - a LOT of flexibility
  9. Choosing Building Systems: Budget

    Minimize OFF Site Time
    • Site cast concrete
    • Light gauge steel framing
    • Wood platform frame
    • Masonry
    • ICF's
  10. Choosing Building Systems: Budget

    Minimize ON Site Time
    • Steel frame
    • Precast concrete
    • Heavy timber frame
    • SIP's
  11. Choosing Building Systems: Budget

    Size and Time
    1-3 Story building
  12. Choosing Building Systems: Codes

    International Building Code

    (most common)
  13. Choosing Building Systems: Codes: Use Group

    Groups A-1 through A-5
    Public Assembly occupancies: theaters, auditoriums, lecture halls, nightclubs, restaurants, houses of worship, libraries, museums, sports arenas, and so on.
  14. Choosing Building Systems: Codes: Use Group

    Group B
    Business occupancies: banks, administrative offices, higher-education facilities, post offices, professional offices, and the like.
  15. Choosing Building Systems: Codes: Use Group

    Group E
    Educational occupancies: schools for grades K through 12 and day-car facilities.
  16. Choosing Building Systems: Codes: Use Group

    Groups F-1 and F-2
    Industrial processes using... 

    • F-1: moderate-flammability materials 
    • F-2: noncombustible materials
  17. Choosing Building Systems: Codes: Use Group

    Groups H-1 through H-5
    Various types of High Hazard occupancies in which toxic, corrosive, highly flammable, or explosive materials are present.
  18. Choosing Building Systems: Codes: Use Group

    Groups I-1 through I-4
    Institutional occupancies in which occupants under the care of others may not be able to save themselves during a fire or other building emergency, such as health care facilities, custodial care facilities, and prisons.
  19. Choosing Building Systems: Codes: Use Group

    Group M
    Mercantile occupancies: stores, markets, service stations, and salesrooms.
  20. Choosing Building Systems: Codes: Use Group

    Groups R-1 through R-4
    Residential occupancies, including apartment buildings, dormitories, fraternity and sorority houses, hotels, one- and two-family dwellings, and assisted-living facilities.
  21. Choosing Building Systems: Codes: Use Group

    Groups S-1 and S-2
    Buildings for Storage of...

    • S-1: moderate-hazard materials
    • S-2: low-hazard materials
  22. Choosing Building Systems: Codes: Use Group

    Group U
    Utility buildings. It comprises agricultural buildings, carports, greenhouses, sheds, stables, fences, tanks, towers, and other secondary buildings.
  23. Choosing Building Systems: Codes

    Structural Types
    • Type I - Fire resistive, non-combustible construction
    • Type II - Structure itself is made of non-combustibles
    • Type III - Wood frame construction with fire resistive exterior, to avoid Chicago Fire-like conflagrations
    • Type IV - Heavy timber or "mill" construction, slow burning
    • Type V - Platform framing
  24. Choosing Building Systems: Codes

    Behavior Modification
    • Zoning for permitted use
    • Setbacks - What you have to leave clear before you build.
    • Easements - Where utilities go through (power lines, sewers, electrical, where you can't dig or sometimes build above)
    • Height Limitations
    • Covenants - Restrictions imposed by neighborhoods or parts of a city.
Card Set
B. TECH TEST I | Set 2
Building Technology