Why are veins commonly used when collecting blood?
- 1)Because they easy to find.
- 2) they have thin walls.
3) they have low BP.
4) they seal fast.
Which plasma protein will determine the majority of BCOP? What does it control?
Albumin. It controls capillary exchange. (BCOP= blood colloid osmotic pressure)
Why are plasma protein unable leave the blood?
Because they too big to pass through the vessels walls.
Where are the majority of plasma proteins created?
The liver (90%).
What kind of solutes would be found in plasma?
- Ions: Na+ , Ca- , K+, Mg2+, Cl- .
- organic nutrients, gases, metabolic waste, and hormones.
How much of plasma is comprised of water?
92% water in plasma.
What proportion of blood is comprised of plasma? What proportion is comprised of formed elements?
- 55% plasma.
- 45% formed elements
What is whole blood? What can it be separated into?
Cells, water, proteins, fats, hormones, ions, organic nutrient, waste materials, etc.
What two components comprise whole blood?
Plasma & form elements.
Why would you collect blood from artery instead of a vein?
To measure the Oxygen in the blood.
What will be transported by metalloproteins? how about apolipoproteins?
Mtalloproteins transport Metals such as Fe3+ .
Apolipoprotein transports fats.
Which plasma protein would you expect to be elevated during an infection?
How erithrprotein (EPO) cause increase in number of circulating RBCs?
1.It stimulate cells division in erythroblasts and in stem cells that produce erythroblast.
2. it speeds up maturation of erythrocytes.
What is hemoglobin initially dissociate to?
Globin & heme
Hemoglobin with O2 bound to it is referred ______? Hemoglobin without O2 bound to it is referred _____? Hemoglobin with CO2 bound to it is referred ____ ?
What does CO2 bind to within hemoglobin?
Which component of hemoglobin is a protein component?
Globin, 2 α chains & 2 β chains.
What results from breakdown of urobilinogen? where do these components go?
- Stercobilin secreted in feces. (gives feces brown color)
- urobilin secreted in urine. (gives urine yellow color).
What bilirubin converted to? and where?
urobilinogen, in the small intestine.
After bilirubin leaves the macrophage where does it go?
To the liver.
How long erythrocytes live?
Where do we store iron?
in the liver.
How is Iron transported (what is it bound to)?
What does biliverdin converted to? and where it happen?
Biliverdin (greenish color) converted to bilirubin (yellowish color).
In the macrophage.
What does heme breakdown to?
Fe3+ & biliverdin (iron & pigment)
What will globin break down into?
How many O2 molecules can each hemoglobin bind?
What does O2 bind to within the hemoglobin?
Why unusual shape of RBC important?
Large surface ratio area improve gas exchange.
It allow RBCs to preform stacks (rouleux).
It gives the RBCs flexibility that enable them to go through small capillaries (even smaller then their diameter)
What cell(s) will exhibit increase in production in response to each of the colony stimulating factors? (GM-CSF, M-CSF, G-CSF, and Multi-CSF)
- GM-CSF: Granulocytes & Monocytes. M-CSF: Monocytes.
- G-CSF: Granulocytes.
- Multi-CSF: progenitor cells that can produce Monocytes, Granulocytes, platelets, and Erithrocytes.
How many WBC will be found in 1 μL of blood? How many platelets?
5,000-10,000 WBC. 100,000 - 400,000 platelets.
How many RBC will be found in μL of blood?
4.8 - 5.4 Million.
Sickle cell anemia
- Inherited blood disease.
- Incorrect amino acid in the hemoglobin that cause RBC to sickle.
- The RBCs are very fragile and their shape cause them to block vessels.
what are two nutritional blood disorders?
Iron deficiency RBC cannot produce functional hemoglobin and they are unusually small.
Preniccious Anemia Fewer number of RBC due to vitamin B12 deficiency.
How long after an injury platelet phase of hemostasis begins?
Where platelets removed from the blood circulation?
How long platelets circulate in the blood?
Between 9-12 days.
How many hemoglobins molecules are in one RBC?
Between 250 to 280 million.
Which plasma protein transports steroids, hormones, and fatty acids?
How hemolytic disease of new born can be prevented?
By Rhogan shot. It will prevent a mother with RH- to develop anti-D Plasma antibodies.
Understand Hemolytic disease of new born (HDN).
- Mother has RH-
- first fetus has RH+
- During delivery mother's and baby's blood mixed.
- Mothers blood got sensitized (develop anti-D plasma antibodies)
- Mother anti-D plasma antibodies will attack the RBCs of the second fetus if the fetus has RH+ blood.
Will RH- people have anti-RH antibodies?
Only if their blood is sensitized by being mixed with RH+ blood.
List functions of platelets?
- Act as temporary patch in damaged vessel wall.
- release clotting factors.
- reduce the size of a break in the vessel wall.
- Play large role in the process of hemostasis.
Where are platelets stored?
In the spleen. (Approximately 2/3)
What antigen will be found on the surface of RBCs of each blood type?
: A agglutinogen (antigen).
: B agglutinogen.
- Type AB: A & B agglutinogens
- Type O: No agglutinogens.
Which antigen causes the RH factor?
What cause transfusion reaction?
Blood type mismatch between donor and recipient.
What antibodies will be found in the plasma of each each of the blood type?
- Type A: Anti-B.
- Type B: Anti-A
- Type AB: No Antibodies A or B
- Type O: Both antibodies A & B.
Clamping. ( plasma antibodies do not recognize RBC surface antigans as self antigens)
What are the steps of the vascular phase of hemostasis?
1. endothelial cells contract and expose basement membrane to blood stream.
2. Endothelial cells release chemical factors, local hormones, and endothilin that stimulate vascular spasm and speeds up division of fibroblasts into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells.
3.Endothelial cells become sticky. It eable them to stick to each other and to platelets.
What is hemostesis? What are its phases?
Hemostasis = stop bleeding.
Its phases 1. Vascular phase. 2. Platelet phase. 3. Coagulation phase.
Know the common pathway of coagulation.
1. activated Factor X activates Prothrombinase. → thrombiase=(activated prothrombinase)
2. Thrombinase bind to and activate Prothrombin become Thrombin.
3. Thrombin converts Fibrinogen into Fibrin.
Fibrin an insoluble make the scab.
What starts the extrinsic pathway?
- Release of tissue factor (TF) by endothelial cells.
- Then TF combined with ions and other clotting factors to activate Factor X.
What starts intrinsic pathway?
- Proenzyme that is exposed to collagen fibers at the site of the injury.
- Than it process with assistance of PF-3.
at the end it will activate Factor X.
During hemostasis, what compound released by platelets?
ADP ( stimulate platelets aggregation) bring more platelets to the injury site.
Chemicals that trigger vascular spasm.
Platelet factors that play a role in clotting.
Platelet-Drived-Growth-Factor (PDGF) that will increase growth and cell repair (repair of the vessels wall).
Ca+ (require for platelet aggregation)
- Parasitic disease cussed by Protozoan Plasmodium.
- Initially infect the liver but regiments infect RBCs.
RBCs periodically lyes and release more parasites.
- Bacterial or viral blood infection.
- Pathogens are present and multiplying in the blood.
- Also reared as blood poisoning.
- Odd shape, big, and fewer number of RBCs.
- Due to Vitamine B12 deficiency.
Cell that divide into granulocytes.
Abnormal level of granulocytes due to cancerous cells in the bone marrow.
abnormal level of lymphocytes due to cancerous cells in the bone marrow
Excessive loss of red blood cells and hemoglobin due to bleeding
- Inherited Bleeding disorder.
- Malfunctioning clotting cascade Due to reduce production of clotting factors.
Broken RBC Usually due to reaction between antigen on foreign RBCs and plasma antibodies.
a condition in which red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the bloodstream before their normal lifespan is over.
A cell in the bone marrow that can produce any blood cell.
The potion of the formed elements of a whole blood.
separation of plasma from the formed elements of a whole blood.
Protein in the liver that binds and stores iron.
Production of RBC.
Antigens on the surface of RBC.
What is the plasma composition?
- 92% water.
- 7% plasma proteins: albumins, fibrogens, and globulins.
- 1% solutes: Ions,Na+, K+, Ca+, Mg2+, Cl-, organic nutrient, gases, metabolic waste, and hormones.
Pact cell volume (PCV)
Plasma with clotting proteins removed.
What percentage of RBC / hematocrit are in average men? How about woman?
- Woman: 37%-47%
What percentage of RBC are in the hematocrit?
If blood pH is lower then normal, it referred as? what if it's higher then normal?
What is the normal pH level of blood?
- Blood pH 7.35 - 7.45
- Blood is slightly alkaline.
What is the viscosity of blood compare to water?
Blood is 5 times more viscous then water.
What is the temperature of blood?
What is the average blood volume for man? What about woman?
What blood consist of?
- Plasma (liquid matrix).
- Form elements (cells and cell fragments):
- Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and Platelets.
What are the general function of blood?
- Transport of dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes.
- Regulation of pH and and ion concentration.
- Restriction of blood (fluid) loss at injury site.
- Defense against pathogens and toxins.
- Stabilization of body temperature.
Which plasma protein plays a role in the clotting process?